Summer steelhead crossing Bonneville
Dam on or before August 25.
Belly or lower area of a fish, especially
between the pelvic fins and anus.
Pelvic fins located on the abdomen
far behind the pectoral fins; pelvic bones do not attach to pectoral
The number of fish which grow into
the catchable size range in a unit of time (usually a year).
Information obtained from samples or
observations and used as a measure of the weight or number of fish
which make up a stock.
Accessory pelvic appendage
A tapered fleshy lobe above
the base of the pelvic fin.
The adaptation of an organism to
Concrete or earthen pond or a
temporary structure used for rearing and imprinting juvenile fish in
the water of a particular stream before their release into that
Action of a lure:
The specific movement of a lure
through the water
Action of a rod:
Its dynamic response to load and
force, described as stiff action, parabolic action, etc.
Changes in an organism's structure or habits
that allow it to adjust to its surroundings.
Possessing a life history trait of migrating
between lakes or rivers and streams.
A small fleshy fin with no rays, located
between the dorsal and caudal fins.
Adult equivalent population
The number of fish that
would have returned to the mouth of the Columbia River in the
absence of any prior harvest.
A chamber used to inject air into water.
A portable, battery-operated air-pump for
oxygenating the water in a livebait bucket. Some types plug into a
car's cigarette lighter and run off the car battery.
A stream or river that flows into a
larger one; a Tributary.
The number of years of life completed, here
indicated by an arabic numeral, followed by a plus sign if there is
any possibility of ambiguity (age 5, age 5+)1.
A group of individuals of a certain species
that have the same age.
A deadbait with air injected into
its body cavity with a hypodermic needle and syringe. The deadbait
then fishes off the bottom.
A lobworm injected with air with a
hypodermic needle and syringe. The lobworm fishes off the bottom.
The developmental life stage of young salmonids
and trout that are between the egg and fry stage. The alevin has not
absorbed its yolk sac and has not emerged from the spawning gravels.
A food fish belonging to the herring family.
Water with a low degree of acidity
An amount set aside from a TAC to allow for
the expected catch of fish harvesters who are not subject to quota
These are essential nutrients which the
body uses to make proteins. Carp anglers use them in liquid form as
an appetite stimulant in their baits.
Fish that hatch rear in fresh water,
migrate to the ocean (salt water) to grow and mature, and migrate
back to fresh water to spawn and reproduce.
The fin located on the ventral median line and
behind the anus.
A buoyant bread crust hookbait anchored
to the bottom by shot or a leger weight on the line close to the
hook. It is great for chub and roach on rivers in winter.
Anchored floater rig
A rig comprising a floating
hookbait on the surface, anchored in position by a leger weight on
the bottom. It avoids line floating on the surface which may spook
wary fish and is useful for presenting a still bait to stillwater
carp and rudd.
The act of fishing with hook and line.
A hookbait and groundbait flavouring, in liquid
or powder form, that is traditionally used to attract roach.
An edible dye once widely used to colour
homebred maggots buttery yellow, but not now commonly available.
Annual (or seasonal) Total Mortality Rate
The number of
fish which die during a year (or season), divided by the initial
number. Also called; actual mortality rate, *coefficient of
A mark or ring that forms annually on the
otoliths, scales, and other bones of fish, that correspond to the
annual period of slow growth that fish go through. Annuli are used
by fish managers to determine age and growth of fish.
A leger rig for carp, tench or barbel
that has a hookbait, usually a boilie, mounted on a hair rig in such
a way that a fish cannot blow out the bait without the hook pricking
A small plastic strip which you mount on
the line above the wire trace to prevent the line twisting and
kinking when you are spinning, trolling or wobbling.
A device on a fixed-spool reel that
prevents the reel backwinding and giving line when it is engaged.
Any kind of leger rig incorporating
booms, swivels and tubing in such a way that the risk of tangling
during the cast is much reduced. They are mainly used in carp
The interrelationships of biological
organisms within a body of water (may also apply to Great Lakes
Water-bred insects which spend all or
part of their life in water; e.g., midges, stoneflies, mayflies
The controlled cultivation and harvest of
aquatic plants or animals (e.g., edible marine algae, clams,
oysters, and salmon).
An aerodynamic, teardrop-shaped leger
weight incorporating a small swivel, in various sizes from 3.5g
Man-made baits; e.g. spoons, plugs
Categories of the level of complexity
of and data available for each assessment included in this document;
index of abundance (INDEX), yield-per-recruit analysis (YIELD),
analysis of the age structure of the catch (AGE STRUCTURE), analysis
including the relationship between recruitment and spawning stock
size (SPAWNING STOCK) and assessment that allows prediction of
future (one or two years ahead) stock sizes and catches
(predictive). These levels are detailed in the subsection titled
Kinds of Assessments.
An atomizer is useful for spraying groundbait,
bloodworm and joker with a fine mist of water, to prevent them
drying out. You can add flavourings to the water.
Automatic bail arm
A bail arm on a fixed-spool reel
that springs open at the touch of a finger, to allow one-handed
1. The fraction of a fish population which
lives in regions where it is susceptible to fishing during a given
fishing season . This fraction receives recruits from or becomes
mingled with the non-available part of the stock at other seasons,
or in other years. (Any more or less completely isolated segment of
the population is best treated as a separate stock.) 2. Catch per
unit of effort.
A through-action, 3.4-3.7m (11-12ft) rod, with
a 0.45-0.7kg (1-11/2lb) test curve, for legering or float fishing
for big barbel, tench, chub and bream.
A balsa, pith or poltstyrene-bodied float,
with a slim tip, and a cane or wire stem, fished top and bottom with
a bulk shot for trotting small baits in fast-flowing water.
Summer steelhead crossing Bonneville
Dam after August 25.
A tangle of line caused by spool overrun on a
A sliding weight that you clip on to the line
between the rod top and leger rig after casting. It holds the line
on the bottom, so that fish are not alarmed by seeing the line or
bumping into it. It also prevents line bites.
One or more small split shot pinched on the
line a few inches above the float. You can use back-shot to
stabilize the rig when pole fishing in windy conditions, to help
sink the reel line when waggler fishing in windy conditions.
line added to the back of the line, so when
spooled it fills the reel
a system of boat control whereby a craft
is moved in reverse while running lures or baits
Allowing a running fish to take line from a
fixed-spool reel by winding the handle backwards.
The number of fish an angler may legally keep
That part of a fixed-spool reel, comprising a
wire bar and roller, that rotates around the spool as you turn the
handle, so winding the line on to the spool.
Any liquid or powder used to colour or
flavour a bait, or otherwise increase its attraction to fish.
An apron with pouches for bait and pockets
for disgorgers, spare hooks, catapults and other small items. It
allows you to have such things to hand when wading.
A plastic container designed to hold maggots,
casters or worms, but useful for other baits as well. The lid is
perforated to allow the bait to breathe.
Bait box holder
A plastic tray that screws into a bank
stick and has moulded receptacles to hold your bait boxes securely.
It allows you to keep your bait close to hand, as well as small
items such as disgorgers and catapults.
A fishing reel in which the spool is
not stationary during a cast, but revolves
Various powder and liquid dyes are
available to colour a variety of baits, including maggots, pastes
and boilies. The commonest colours are red, yellow and orange.
A small, weighted plastic or metal device
for feeding groundbait or particle baits accurately under the rod or
pole tip. You simply attach it to the line, fill it with bait and
lower it into the water. On hitting the bottom it releases its
Technique using the natural prey of other
There are hundreds of different
concentrated liquid bait flavourings. Most are designed to flavour
boilies for carp fishing, but you can use any of them to flavour
other baits, such as maggots and pastes, as well as groundbait.
A fixed-spool reel with an optional
free-spool mode. This allows the spool to rotate freely while the
bail arm is closed, giving fairly resistance-free line to a taking
fish. Just before you strike, a flick of a switch disengages the
Tackle is balanced when the test curve
of the rod, the breaking strain of the line, and the size and
strength of the hook are all compatible.
Throwing or catapulting in a large quantity
of groundbait all in one go - usually at the start of a session.
Attaching an inflated balloon to a pike rig
with a paper clip, then letting the wind drift it beyond casting
range. When the balloon reaches the required spot, you strike it off
the line, leaving your rig where you want it.
An all-balsa float fished top and bottom
with a large bulk shot. Its thick tip and heavy shotting capacity
allows you to long-trot a big bait in fast, deep, turbulent water.
A short, all-balsa waggler tapering to a
fine tip. In sizes up to no more than about 2BB, they are designed
for fishing on the drop with fine tackle and small baits, mainly on
canals, drains and still waters.
A pike plug shaped like a banana that
wobbles enticingly through the water, mimicking a sick or injured
A metal pole with a point at one end, to
push into the ground, and a screw thread at the other end, to take
an accessory such as a rod rest, bait box holder or keepnet.
A hook with a barb cut into it near the
point that helps keep the bait on the hook and ensures that fish
A slender tactile process or fleshy projection
located around the head.
A hook with no barb, that miminizes
damage to delicate baits, ensures full penetration of the point into
the mouth of a fish, and allows easy removal of the hook without
damaging the fish.
Most hooks have one of three sizes of barb.
Barbless hooks have a smooth point for better penetration, bait
presentation and hooking. Barbed hooks help keep fish on the hook
during the fight.
A streamlined, barrel-shaped weight that is
threaded lengthways on the line. It is most useful in rigs for pike.
An artificial lure comprising a metal spoon
revolving about a metal bar, and used mainly to catch pike and
The small bones behind the tongue on
which the gill arches articulate.
Large, floating flies with deer hair and/or
Quickly winding line back on to a centrepin
reel by spinning the drum with the palm of your hand.
Presenting a floating bait above a
leger weight with the rod propped high in the air. This keeps the
line clear of the water and so avoids spooking wary carp.
Ordinary plastic beads of various sizes have a
variety of uses. They can be used to prevent sliding floats jamming
against stop knots, and they can be incorporated into swimfeeder and
leger rigs to protect knots.
Beans of all types are a superb bait for carp,
but you must soak and cook them, otherwise they can swell up inside
a carp's stomach and kill it.
A portable, adjustable bedchair gives you a
combined bed and chair for long-stay sessions.
This is when line being wound on to a reel
becomes trapped under coils of line already wound on to the spool.
It most often occurs when playing a large fish with a closed-face
reel that is loaded with too much line.
Bait such as maggots sit directly below the point
with a crystal bend hook, while bigger baits such as luncheon meat
fit on a round bend hook much better.
Living at or near the bottom of a body of
Bent hook rig
A carp rig that originally featured a
hook with a bent shank, which improved the hook-up rate of
self-hooking rigs. Bent hooks have been banned on some waters, so
they have been replaced by rigs in which the bend has been replaced
by a length of stiffened bend braided line.
A small, clear plastic tube containing an
artificial glowing light source. It is fixed to a float, bobbin or
rod top for fishing at night. They remain bright for years.
Biological reference points
Fishing mortality rates
that may provide acceptable protection against growth overfishing
and/or recruitment overfishing for a particular stock. They are
usually calculated from equilibrium yield-per-recruit curves,
spawning stock biomass-per-recruit curves and stock recruitment
data. Examples are F0.1, Fmax and Fmed.
Biomass The aggregate amount of living matter or a
specific species within a specific habitat. The total number of a
specific species in a specific habitat.
An ingredient commonly used in boilie and paste
mixes for carp and tench.
A birdsnest is when the line on your reel
becomes badly tangled around the spool.
A small, dome-shaped tent that can accommodate a
bedchair. It is mainly used by long-stay carp anglers.
Blank The main
component of a finished fishing rod, minus the guides and handle.
A small, silvery, surface-feeding fish found in
large shoals in some rivers. It usually grows to no more than 28g
(1oz), and so is mainly of interest to match anglers, who have
developed techniques for amassing large weights of the fish using
A swimfeeder with end caps,
one of which is removable, for filling with particle baits such as
maggots or hemp. It is punched with holes to allow the release of
its contents in the water.
An easy to tie and commonly used knot for
joining two lengths of line.
The small, red larvae of midges, found in the
silt at the bottom of most still waters, canals, drains and slow
rivers. The staple diet of many species of fish, bloodworm are
mainly used by match anglers on canals as a hookbait for small fish.
A tool used to collect bloodworm.
It comprises a long handle and an angled metal blade. The bloodworm
stick to the blade when it is scraped through the silt at the bottom
Blue Bird Skies A
term used to describe bright, sunny, blue sky conditions that often
makes fishing tougher.
The process of placing a boat in the correct
position with relation to the fish -- and keeping it there -- in
order to facilitate the most effective presentation
A device which floats on the surface and allows
an angler to suspend baits at various depths and helps to signal a
strike; also called a "float"
A bite indicator hung on the line above the reel
when legering. Traditionally a lump of dough, the top from a bottle
of washing-up liquid, or a piece of silver paper, various
commercially made bobbins are now available.
A waggler float with a balsa or polystyrene body
at its base. The body increases the shot capacity of the float,
allowing longer-distance casting, and provides greater stability in
A pole float with a teardrop-shaped
(the thicker end towards the bottom of the float, hence
'body-down'), usually balsa, body. These floats show up on-the-drop
bites well, and are mainly used for fishing still or slow water.
A body-up pole float is any pole
float with an inverted teardrop-shaped body (the thick end is closer
to the tip). It is mainly used to fish running water, where the body
shape allows you to hold back without the float riding out of the
A bait made by adding egg to a paste bait and
then boiling it. This gives it a hard skin that deters the unwanted
attention of small fish. Usually about the size of a marble, boilies
are used mainly in carp fishing. They come in many colours.
A small, hand-held tool, like a
thin crochet hook, for mounting a boilie on a hair-rig.
A small, hand-held tool with a fine drill bit,
for drilling holes in boilies or other particle baits for easy
A small, hand-held tool for making a large hole
in a boilie in which to insert rig foam to create a buoyant bait.
A small, angled piece of plastic that keeps the
boilie on the hair.
A radio-controlled boat with a motor that takes
boilies out to your chosen swim and drops them there, allowing
accurate feeding beyond the range of a throwing stick, catapult or
A catapult with powerful elastic, a rigid cup,
and often a wrist support, designed for feeding boilies.
A commercially made mix of dry ingredients from
which to make your own boilies.
A weighted, plastic container, similar to a
baitdropper, for feeding boilies or other baits beyond the range of
a catapult or throwing stick. Attached to the end of the line on a
spare rod, it is cast to the required spot, and automatically
releases the bait when it hits the water.
Commercially made, spiked piece of plastic used
instead of a hair to hold a boilie close to the hook in a hair-rig.
The spikes hold the boilie in place when you cast.
A method of float fishing deep,
flowing water with a heavy pole-float rig on a running line. An
extra-long rod of 4.6-6.1m (15-20ft) in length allows you to cast a
fixed float set at full depth, and to control the float at long
An extra-long 4.6-6.1m (15-20ft), telescopic or
take-apart float rod, specifically designed for fishing the
A leger rig, in which the fish hooks itself.
When the hooks pricks the fish inside its mouth, the fish bolts, and
the hook is pulled home by a line clip and heavy bite indicators
such as monkey climbers or a heavy lead, or both.
A light, 2.7-3.4m (9-11ft) leger rod for
quivertipping with fine line, a small hook and a small Arlesey bomb.
It can also cast small swimfeeders, and is mainly used in match
fishing. A bomb rod can have built-in, push-in or push-over
quivertips, depending on make and model.
Any float, but normally a waggler,
that is attached to the line at the base only. The float may be
attached with a sleeve of rubber tubing, it may have an eye in its
base for threading on to the line and holding in place with locking
shot, or you can use a float adaptor.
A little used but sometimes devastatingly
effective method of legering running water. By choosing a weight not
quite heavy enough to hold bottom, and paying out a slight bow into
the line, you can bounce your bait slowly down the river, searching
the full length of your swim.
A method of fishing a swimfeeder in running
water. The swimfeeder is weighted so that it just holds bottom with
a bow of line paid out from the reel and the rod propped high in the
air to keep as much line as possible clear of the water. A biting
fish dislodges the swimfeeder, giving a clear drop-back bite - and
often hooking itself in the process.
A hooklength made from
braided line, mainly used when fishing for carp, tench and barbel.
The soft braid offers more natural bait presentation than relatively
stiff ordinary line - especially line of 2.3 kg (5lb) or more
Braided line is far softer and more supple than
ordinary monofilament, and is more abrasion-resistant. It also has
very little stretch. It is mainly used to tie hooklengths for carp
and other big fish.
A useful agent for cleaning and storing
maggots, bran can also be used to bulk out a groundbait mix.
A small (5-7.5cm/2-3in), striped worm found
mainly in compost and manure heaps. It can be a good bait for many
species of fish, especially bream and perch, and breeds well in a
An excellent legered bait for roach and chub in
winter, and an excellent floating bait for carp, rudd and chub in
summer. It is best fished on a large hook - at least a size 12. It
can be flavoured and coloured.
Pinched on a large hook - at least a size 12 -
bread flake is a slow-sinking bait that can be legered or
floatfished. It catches all sorts of fish, and takes colours and
Little used nowadays, but good for roach, rudd,
tench and bream, bread paste is a traditional bait made by soaking
stale bread in water and then kneading it to a doughy consistency.
Flavours and colours work well with bread paste.
A bread punch is a small, hand-held tool for
punching a compressed pellet out of a slice of bread. Different
sizes are available for punching different-sized hookbaits.
A common groundbait; both white and brown bread
may be used.
A definite change in depth or cover or the area
where two layers of water meet and differ in temperature, oxygen,
Various kinds of breakfast
cereals, including puffed wheat, are used as floating baits,
especially for carp.
The strength of pull required to
break line. Line is sold by both breaking strain (in kilograms and
grams, or pounds and ounces) and diameter (thickness in hundredths
of a millimetre or thousandths of an inch).
Pole floats with fine plastic
bristle tips are very sensitive but cannot register the settling of
A deep-bodied, bottom-feeding fish found in all
types of water, but especially still or slow waters. Bream grow to
7.3kg (16lb) or more, but a 4.5kg (10lb) fish is an outstanding
specimen. Smaller bream form huge shoals and can be caught in large
Adult fish used to propagate the subsequent
generation of hatchery fish.
Brown breadcrumbs form the basis of many
groundbait mixes, particularly on still and slow waters for skimmers
and bream. They can be used neat, or to bulk out more expensive
Continental groundbait mixes.
A round, hollow float made of clear plastic,
used as a controller float to present a floating bait for rudd or
carp. You can partially fill them with water to provide casting
Pertaining to the cheeks or the cavity of the
A spawning male fish
Lure dressed with deer hair
A cork-bodied surface fly designed to imitate a
variety of aquatic and terrestrial foods
Bullet Sinker A
cone shaped piece of lead of varying weights that slides up and down
A heavy split shot, or group of split shot,
usually placed on the line just below halfway between the float and
the hook. Bulk shot are used mainly with pole floats, and
top-and-bottom running line floats such as Avons and balsas, to get
a hookbait quickly to the bottom.
A small bottom-feeding fish, also known as the
The tendency of a body to float or rise when
submerged in a fluid.
A hinged bite indicator,
similar to a swingtip, that clips on to the rod just above the butt
ring. Butt indicators are useful when legering still or slow water
in very windy conditions, being easy to shelter with an umbrella.
The first ring on a rod above the reel fitting
and handle - usually on the butt section. A butt ring needs to be
large to facilitate casting.
A small, U-shaped rod rest head for holding the
handle of a rod when legering or float fishing.
A butterfly rod rest comprises two
flexible rubber loops that grip the front of your rod when legering,
without trapping the line, but which readily release the rod when
A salmonid fry that has not completely absorbed
its yolk sac and has emerged from its spawning gravel.
An artificial lure with propeller-style blades
that stir up the water upon retrieve; a type of topwater lure.
See 'Electronic bite alarm'.
A horizontal bar that fixes to a rod pod or
bank stick, and which is specifically designed to hold two or three
electronic bite alarms.
CCPFH - Canadian
Council of Professional Fish Harvesters
This group is a national council organized to
address the need for nationally-established programmes and standards
for professional fish harvesters.
CCN - Coastal
A network of
community people concerned with the survival of Nova Scotia's
coastal communities. This network is a committee that includes
representatives from fishery organizations, churches, municipal
leaders, women, educational organizations, economic development
agencies, environmental groups and others. It is an open forum where
concerned people meet to discuss and plan strategic actions.
A diverse family of aquatic insects
recognizable by down wings.
An open-end swimfeeder made
from plastic or metal mesh. The mesh allows quicker release of the
contents than an ordinary plastic open-end swimfeeder. It also
offers less resistance to running water, allowing you to use less
weight to hold bottom.
A small catapult with light
elastic and a small pouch, designed for accurate loosefeeding at up
to about 15m (50ft). This makes it particularly useful on canals, or
anywhere when fishing with a pole.
A small, free-standing metal platform for bait
boxes and accessories, used by match anglers on canals and other
venues where the bank is flat but too hard to use an ordinary bait
box holder on a bank stick.
Pole floats with cane stems are
designed for fishing on the drop when short-lining with a long pole,
and fishing with a bulk shot and droppers with a whip.
Pole floats with cane tips can be
shotted so that the settling of the dropper shots register on the
tip, making them useful for spotting bites on the drop.
When used with shirt-button
shotting, cane-stemmed stick floats cock slowly, showing bites on
A type of very heavy round weight used in
deep-water fishing with downriggers
Carbon fibre-stemmed pole floats
are a compromise between the stability of wire-stemmed floats and
the slow-cocking properties of cane-stemmed floats.
Carbon fibre-tipped pole floats
are similar to plastic bristle-tipped pole floats in that they offer
sensitivity without the ability to register the settling of dropper
Feeding on animal tissues.
A "Carolina rig" consists of an egg shaped
sinker (usually one ounce), a swivel, a leader of about 4 feet and a
large single hook. The size of the sinker and hook can vary
depending on the type of cover and how deep you are fishing. The
usual type of bait to fish with is a plastic lizard or large plastic
worm. This is an excellent method to fish drop-offs and other deep[
water cover. It also works good in the Spring for shallow water bass
A major group of fishes including
sharks and rays.
A large pole bung designed to fit the third or
fourth section of a pole, for use with heavy carp elastics.
Heavy pole elastic designed for use with carp
poles. In the standard size range, 8, 10 and 12 all count as carp
elastics. Elastics heavier than size 12 are coded in different ways
by different manufacturers.
An extra-strong long pole, usually with put-in
joints, designed for fishing with carp elastics for carp of any size
up to about 4.5kg (10lb).
A rod designed for fishing for large carp. Some
are designed for long-distance fishing, others for stalking in the
margins. A general-purpose carp rod, however, is 3.4-3.7m (11-12ft)
long, with a through action, and a test curve of about 0.9kg (2lb).
A dark, soft mesh bag with a drawstring, for
temporarily retaining specimen fish in the water's edge.
A large, waterproof nylon bag with carrying
straps, used mainly by match anglers for transporting bulky items
that will not fit inside a seat box, such as keepnets, landing nets,
bags of groundbait and boxes of bait.
The pupae of large maggots, widely used as a
bait for most species of fish, often in conjunction with hemp and
groundbait. Casters exposed to the air until they become crisp, dark
floaters are best for the hook.
Refers to fishes that migrate from fresh water
to salt water to spawn or reproduce such as the American eel.
A widely used floating bait for carp, cat
biscuits can also be crushed and added to groundbait or made into a
A graph of the logarithm of number of fish
taken at successive ages or sizes.
Catch Per Unit Of
The catch of fish, in numbers or
in weight, taken by a defined unit of fishing effort. Also called;
catch per effort, fishing success, availability.
"The fraction of a fish stock which is caught
by a defined unit of the fishing effort. When the unit is small
enough that it catches only a small part of the stock -- 0.01 or
less--it can be used as an instantaneous rate in computing
population change. (For fractions taken of various portions of the
stock, see ""vulnerability."") Also called; catchability
coeificient, *force of fishing mortality"
An ethical principle whereby an angler
carefully releases a fish
A long, dark, soft mesh bag with a drawstring,
designed for temporarily retaining catfish in the water's edge.
A hookbait made from tinned catfood, and mainly
used for catching tench and carp.
The tail area of a fish
The tail fin.
The tapering portion of a
fish's body between the posterior edge of the anal fin base and the
base of the caudal fin.
A reel with the line wound directly
on to a freely revolving drum rather than a fixed spool. Casting
distance is limited with centrepins, but they allow excellent tackle
control when trotting. They also allow good control of hard-fighting
carp, tench and barbel when fighting close in.
A secondary short line attached to the main
line for running a secondary lure
A marble-sized lump of cheese is an excellent
bait for chub, and the smellier the cheese the better. Danish Blue
is particularly highly rated.
An outstanding bait for chub, cheesepaste is
made by mixing any variety of cheese with anything from ordinary
breadcrumbs to crushed hemp. You can also add flavourings and
A method developed by match
anglers, mainly for catching perch in clear water in winter. It
involves feeding lobworms, brandlings or redworms chopped into tiny
pieces, then pole-fishing a larger worm hookbait over the top.
A large-mouthed, hard-fighting, silvery shoal
fish found mainly in flowing water. Chub grow to 3.6kg (8lb) or
more, but a 2.3kg (5lb) fish is a specimen. They are easily spooked
by a clumsy approach, but they feed in all weathers and the careful
angler can catch them on most baits and using most tactics.
A hollow-plastic version of a balsa float,
fished top and bottom with a large bulk shot.
A top-water plug that has a cup-shaped mouth
Bait thrown in the water to attract fish; e.g.,
cornmeal, fish entrails
Any of several whitefishes found primarily in
the Great Lakes region.
The degree of visibility in a body of water as
determined by water color and turbidity; i.e., stained, dirty, muddy
Flattened, pronged lead weights
of various sizes for adding weight to swimfeeders.
That time of the year when a water is closed to
angling for coarse species. It coincides roughly with the time when
most coarse fish spawn. In general, all rivers and drains are closed
from March 15 to June 15 inclusive, while most canals and still
waters are open all year round.
A fixed-spool reel with the spool
enclosed by a housing and the bail arm replaced by a small pick-up
pin. Originally designed for spinning, they are popular for light
float fishing, especially trotting.
A fine-textured groundbait that can be mixed
sloppy or dry to form an enticing cloud in the water, cloudbait is
mainly used when float fishing on still or slow waters for small
fish up in the water or on the drop.
A brook trout that spends part of its life at
sea or in the Great Lakes
A hookbait that combines two or more different
baits, but usually only two. Commonly used cocktails are worm and
caster, and caster and maggot.
A small (0.25mm diameter x 1 mm
length) wire etched with a distinctive binary code and implanted in
the snout of s salmon or steelhead, which, when retrieved, allows
for the identification of the origin of the fish bearing the tag.
A leger weight shaped like a flattened coffin,
with a hole through the middle to thread direct on to the line.
Coffin weights are designed for holding bottom when using a running
leger in flowing water.
The stable period of very late
fall -winter - early spring
Ordinary large white maggots
dyed different colours. Bronze, red, pink and yellow, and
fluorescent pink, red, yellow and orange (bronze) are the commonest
colours. You sometimes find a few blue, brown and green maggots as
well in a box of ‘mixed maggots’. Red maggots are particularly
sffective for perch, bream, tench and carp. Bronze maggots are the
first choice bait of many river anglers for roach, chub, barbel and
See 'Bait colourings'.
A species' ideal water temperature, pH, O2,
Fully scaled, extremely hard-fighting fish
found mainly in still waters and canals, common carp grow to 22.7kg
(50lb) or more, but a 9.1kg (20lb) fish is a specimen. Large carp
are the favourite quarry of many specialist anglers.
The relationship between two or
more species in a body of water competing for the same food and/or
The area above, below, in front
of, and behind a fish, within which it can see
The fraction of an
initial stock which would be caught during the year (or season) if
no other causes of mortality operated. (Also called fishing
The fraction of an
initial stock that would die from causes other than fishing during a
year (or season), if there were no fishing mortality. Also called;
annual natural mortality rate, seasonal natural mortality rate.
A running paternoster rig that
allows a wary fish a little resistance-free line, giving it the
confidence to take the bait properly.
developed by European match anglers, and containing all manner of
ingredients such as pigeon droppings, crushed hemp, ground peanuts,
ground maize and crushed biscuits. Increasingly popular in Britain,
many commercial makes and mixes are now widely available, offering a
variety of textures and flavourings for a variety of uses.
Continuous lines on a map indicating depth used
by anglers to identify structure
A system of boat control in which
a motor, oars, paddles, or a push pole are used in addition to wind
and current drift
A loaded float designed to fish a
floating bait, especially on still waters for surface-feeding rudd
or carp. It is used more as a casting aid than a bite indicator.
Counting as a lure sinks to
determine the desired depth of retrieve
feature in a body of water which provides protection for individual
or groups of fish; e.g., weeds, rocks, deep water
Short for Catch, Photograph, Release.
A plug with a lip that causes it to dive.
A metal band squeezed on to a wire trace to
secure the wire to the eye of a hook or swivel, in place of a knot.
Crimp pliers have specially shaped jaws to
secure crimps to wire traces with an even pressure, without
weakening the wire.
The average size of the fish in a year-class at
the time when the instantaneous rate of natural mortality equals the
instantaneous rate of growth in weight for the year-class as a
whole. Also called; *optimum size.
A hookbait, usually a boilie, whose
buoyancy is such that it perfectly balances the weight of the hook,
to minimize resistance to a taking fish.
Crowquills fished top-and-bottom with the fat
part uppermost were the forerunners of stick floats. Crowquills
fished bottom-end only with the slim tapering end uppermost are
still used by many anglers in preference to balsa wagglers.
A small, bottom-feeding, shy-biting species of
carp found mainly in still waters. Crucians grow to 2.7kg (6lb) or
more, but a 1.4kg (3lb) fish is a specimen.
A strong, stiff pole, usually with
put-in joints, used by match anglers to take heavy weights of bream
and roach, fishing to hand, on prolific waters such as those found
in Denmark and Ireland. A heavy rig is used, and is tied direct to a
cut back and adapted top section.
Hempseed that has been coarsely ground. Crushed
hemp has an oily texture and is an excellent groundbait additive,
especially for roach, chub, carp and tench.
A hook whose bend is sharply angled
below the point, rather than being rounded. Crystal-bend hooks are
mainly designed for wriggly baits such as maggots and worms. The
sharp angle in the bend prevents such baits masking the point.
Having a comb-like margin.
Smooth, flat, round scales that
have concentric lines called circuli, found on trout, herring, and
DFO - Department of
Fisheries and Oceans
government department responsible for the protection and management
of fish stocks and their habitat.
A small, silvery shoal fish found mainly in
flowing water. Often confused with chub, the dace has a much smaller
mouth and a concave rather than convex anal fin. It averages only
around 100g (a few ounces) and a 0.45kg (1lb) fish is an outstanding
A fine-textured, dampened, clay that, when
mixed with groundbait, makes heavy balls that sink straight to the
bottom and break up very slowly. It is widely used in matches by
pole anglers, in conjunction with jokers as feed, to create an
attractive bed of food on the bottom. It is also used as a binder
for neat joker.
A dead sea, game or coarse fish used as a
hookbait, usually for pike, but sometimes also for zander, catfish,
eels, perch and chub.
A tool for threading a deadbait
on to the line or wire trace before attaching the hook or hooks.
A technique that is primarily used with the
Slug-Go or other soft jerk baits but you can use this with other
lures or plastic worms. You cast out your lure and let it sit on the
bottom without moving it for as long as you can standi it and then
let it sit even longer. When you do move it move it just ever so
A plug with a slightly angled
plastic vane so that it dives steeply when retrieved.
The main basin of a lake or the
channel of a river or reservoir
A large variety of brandling that is only
available from tackle shops.
Controlling your lure or bait at a specific
A condition in which a fish has lost a certain
percentage of scales. Disco maggots
Maggots that are dyed with fluorescent colours
are sometimes known as disco maggots.
A small pole float, usually made from peacock
quill or balsa, with a bulbous tip. Dibbers are mainly used on
canals, with casters as bait, to catch roach from the bottom of
shallow far-bank swims.
A small plastic tool for unhooking fish, a
disgorger has a slotted head which slides down the line and over the
eye or spade of the hook. Disgorgers with different-sized heads are
available for different-sized hooks.
Away from the point of attachment or origin.
These are floating lures which have vanes at
the front which make them dive on the retrieve. The larger the vane
and the shallower the angle, the deeper the dive.
Short for Department of Natural Resources.
Dog biscuits are a commonly used floating bait
for carp, and can also be crushed and added to groundbait, or made
into a paste.
A stick float with a domed top is
easier to see at long range than one with a pointed top. It offers
greater buoyancy and stability, making it more suited to fishing
A knot used to tie hooklengths to spade-end
The fin situated on the back of the fish
Shotting a float so that only the smallest
possible amount of tip is visible above the surface.
A double handle on a
fixed-spool reel is preferred by some anglers for legering because
it is better balanced than a single handle and therefore allows
finer adjustment of the tension in the line.
A balsa float with a small side
ring on the top and bottom in place of float rubbers, to allow it to
be used as a sliding float.
A metal device, resembling an oversized rod,
that is mounted to the decking of a boat and can be lowered or
raised on a metal cable; used to present lures in deep water on
an adjustable mechanism that allows a hooked
fish to take the line off the reel to avoid break-offs.
the movement of a lure, natural food, or a boat
when they move naturally with the flow of water or prevailing winds.
A spherical leger weight with a
hole through the middle to thread direct on to the line.
When a biting fish dislodges the
leger weight or swimfeeder, causing the line to slacken and the bite
indicator to drop back.
A point where there is sharp increase in depth
A bite indicator that combines an
electronic bite alarm with a large bobbin. It is mainly used when
legering for pike.
One or more small shot that are spread between
the hook and the float, or between the hook and the bulk shot. It
aids bite detection because as soon as the fish moves it, the
movement shows up on the float.
A fly which floats on the surface of the water
and imitates mature aquatic insects
Fine powdered clay that you can add to
groundbait in the same manner as damp leem, but which is more often
sprinkled on neat jokers to separate them before adding them to
EA: - Enterprise
A quota from a certain
species that is allocated to a company.
EFF - Eastern
umbrella organization made up of inshore fishermen's organizations.
ESFPA - Eastern
Shore Fishermen's Protective Association
Inshore fishermen's organization representing
multi-species license holders on the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia,
under the umbrella of the EFF.
A portable electronic device that uses sonar to
determine the depth of water, and display the information on a
read-out. Boat anglers fishing large still waters find them very
A system formed by the interaction of a
community of organisms within their environment
Edges can be related to areas of temperature,
water clarity, current, or structures, and they often hold catchable
fish; e.g., active, feeding bass found on the weedline
Freshwater eels are migratory fish that live in
all sorts of waters but spawn in the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic
Ocean. You can catch them on a variety of bottom-fished baits,
especially lobworms and small deadbaits. They feed well on summer
nights. but they rarely feed in winter. They grow to more than 4.5kg
(10lb), but fish over 2.3gk (5lb) are a rare catch.
A section of eel body used as a deadbait when
fishing for pike or zander.
A general term referring to the
percentage removal of fish from a stock, but not as specifically
defined.as either rate of exploitation or instantaneous rate of
A type of weight shaped like an egg with a hole
in the middle
The number of eggs taken at hatcheries when
adult salmon and steelhead are spawned.
The numerical difference
between the number of fertilized eggs produced by a groups of fish
and the number of smolts resulting from those eggs.
Soft, ripe elderberries can be an effective
hookbait for roach, especially when loosefeeding hempseed.
A compact, battery-operated device
for legering, mainly used by carp anglers. It detects line movement,
which it registers with a beep, or buzz, and a small light.
A young freshwater eel. They migrate from their
birthplace in the Sargasso Sea to rivers and lakes all over Europe
and the Americas, where they mature into fully-grown eels, ready to
make the migration back to their spawning grounds.
Having the margin notched.
The degree to which dirt is mixed in with
The early stages of development before an
organism becomes self supporting.
The process during which fry leave their gravel
spawning nest and enter the water column.
An aquatic insect in the process of rising to
the surface to become a flying adult.
Referring to the movement of organisms out of
an area. See immigration and migrating.
The warm layer of water above the thermocline
The catch (in numbers) taken from
a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given
intensity, and (apart from the effects of environmental variation)
its abundance is not changing from one year to the next.
The yield in weight taken from a
fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given
intensity, and (apart from effects of environmental variation) its
biomass is not changing from one year to the next. Also called;
sustainable yield, equivalent sustainable yield.
Having a wide tolerance to salinity.
a body of water that is rich in
dissolved nutrients, but can be deficient in oxygen.
A population of fish that returns to its
natural spawning grounds in even numbered years.
A species that is not native to
a body of water, but has been introduced to it intentionally or by
The distribution of fishing
mortality over the age composition of the fish population,
determined by the type of fishing gear, area and seasonal
distribution of fishing, and the growth and migration of the fish.
The pattern can be changed by modifications to fishing gear, for
example, increasing mesh or hook size, or by changing the ratio of
harvest by gears exploiting the fish (e.g., gill net, trawl, hook
and line, etc.).
The proportion of a population at
the beginning of a given time period that is caught during that time
period (usually expressed on a yearly basis). For example, if
720,000 fish were caught during the year from a population of 1
million fish alive at the beginning of the year, the annual
exploitation rate would be 0.72.
A fish egg containing an embryo that has
developed enough so the eyes are visible through the egg membrane.
A hook with a small eye on the end of the
shank, through which you thread and knot the line. Eyed hooks are
mainly used in the larger sizes, from size 16 up.
Small hooks (size 16 or below)
tend to be spade end, while larger sizes tend to be eyed. A spade is
lighter than an eye for the same size hook, making the hook lighter
and improving bait presentation with small baits.
FCC - Fisheries
Council of Canada
representing large fish-processing companies, including National
Sea, Clearwater, Fishery Products International Ltd., SPANS (Seafood
Producers Association of Nova Scotia) and others.
FMO's - Fisheries
FRCC - Fisheries
Resource Conservation Council
partnership of government, industry and the scientific community.
Created in 1993 to act as an advisory board to the Minister of
FNFA - Fundy North
harvesters organization on the New Brunswick side of the Bay of
The fishing mortality rate at which the
increase in yield-per-recruit in weight for an increase in a
unit-of-effort is only 10 percent of the yield-per-recruit produced
by the first unit of effort on the unexploited stock (i.e., the
slope of the yield-per-recruit curve for the F0.1 rate is only
one-tenth the slope of the curve at its origin).
Hooked or curved like a sickle.
Anadromous fish that return to spawn in the
To make a series of systematic casts to cover
an area around the angler
A rig comprising a large, sliding
float and a heavy weight, set up on a spare rod and used on still
waters to plumb a swim and locate such features as weedbeds and
gravel bars. It can also be used as a marker float.
The total number of eggs produced by a female
The term 'feeder' is a commonly used
abbreviation for a swimfeeder.
A tributary that runs into a larger stream or
An alternative name for squatts
that is mainly used in the north of England.
A larger than normal type of joker that is
about half the size of a bloodworm.
A simple knot for tying a small
loop in the end of a piece of line.
Hooks made from fine wire are
useful in the smaller sizes (18 and below) when fishing with fine
line for small fish. Their light weight allows more natural
presentation of small baits such as pinkies, while their fine wire
minimizes damage. Fin Ray
A soft or hard cartilaginous rod in fins.
Refers to a young fish in its first or second
year of life.
Antiseptic cream, gel, spray
or lotion for treating small sores or wounds on fish before
returning them to the water.
A series of pools arranged like steps that fish
utilize to move upstream over a dam.
Various kinds of fish oil can be used to
flavour deadbaits, pastes and boilies.
A place for catching fish.
The scientific practice of
studying the aquatic ecosystem and applying measures to keep it
An electronic device that uses sonar to
determine the depth of water, but which also displays the depth and
position of fish beneath the boat. It displays this information in
LCD picture of the lake or river bed and the fish.
1. The total fishing gear in use
for a specified period of time. When two or more kinds of gear are
used, they must be adjusted to some standard type 2. Effective
1. Effective fishing effort.
2. Fishing effort per unit area 3. Effectiveness of fishing.
Deaths in a fish stock caused
The catch which a particular gear or vessel
takes from a given density of fish during a certain time interval.
For example, larger vessels (horsepower) have a greater ability to
catch more fish, thus the greater their fishing power. Also,
improvements in a vessel or gear, such as fish finders, Loran, etc.,
can increase fishing power.
The effect of angling on
specific fish populations
Governmental measures to
protect a species or its environment; e.g., prohibiting the fishing
of fragile species during the spawning period
Fishing a whip or pole with a rig
that is the same length as the pole, so that fish can be swung in or
netted without the need for unshipping sections of pole.
To exhaust the supply of fish in a body of
A device made up of a series of stepped pools,
similar to a staircase, that enables adult fish to migrate up the
river past dams.
A contrivance that allows fish to pass around a
A rig in which an Arlesey
bomb or swimfeeder is tied to a short 15-30cm (6-12in) length of
line, called a link, which is in turn tied to the main line above
the hooklength. It is the most commonly used rig in match fishing
and general coarse fishing.
The most commonly used type of reel
in coarse fishing, a fixed-spool reel incorporates a bail arm which
winds the line on to a fixed spool, and which is opened to allow
line to peel smoothly off the spool when you cast.
A small, moulded plastic device for punching a
compressed piece of flake out of a slice of bread.
See 'Flattened lead'.
A catapult with a flat mesh
pouch, designed for loosefeeding maggots, casters and hemp.
A type of pole float, usually made
from peacock quill or balsa, and similar to a dibber, with a thick
tip and a flat top. Dotted down flush with the surface, they combine
buoyancy with stability and sensitivity.
An Arlesey bomb-type lead with a
flattened profile, to offer less resistance to the flow, for a given
weight, in running water.
A flattened leger is an Arlesey
bomb with a flattened profile. It holds bottom better than an
ordinary Arlesey bomb in running water, but cannot be cast with the
A bait additive, usually in
liquid form, designed to enhance the attractiveness of a bait
See 'Bait flavourings'
A fine, flexible, shock-absorbing tip section
for a long pole, for use instead of elastic when fishing to hand.
A small plastic connector that
you glue to the tip of a whip, or to the tip of a flick-tip pole
section, and to which you attach your float rig.
Bits of fur, feathers, and other materials that
are tied on a hook so that they imitate insects, baitfish, etc.
Method using an underhand pendulum motion with
a long rod to present sinking lures to fish in heavy cover
A small, flexible sleeve of eyed rubber tubing
for attaching a bottom-end float to the line. A float adaptor allows
you to change your float without having to remove all the shot on
A container for storing floats. A float box is
useful if you don't have a seat box with storage drawers. It is
usually compartmented, and should be waterproof. Floater-diver
plug that floats when not being moved, but runs beneath the surface
Fishing a still bait on the
bottom with a rig that combines a float with a running leger.
A rod designed for float fishing. Most float
rods are 3.7-4m (12-13ft) long, although shorter and longer ones are
available, and have either a solid, spliced tip to give a tip-action
for stick-float fishing, or a hollow tip to give a more through
action for waggler fishing. Most float rods are designed for use
with 340-680g (12oz-1 1/2lb) hooklengths, but more powerful versions
are also available.
A float rod rest is a wide rod rest
with a flexible rubber top, to support the front of your float rod
when you want to put the rod down to rebait or unhook a fish. It is
wide to allow you to drop the rod in it without looking.
Small, hollow sleeves of rubber or silicone for
attaching top and bottom floats, such as pole floats, sticks, Avons
and balsas, to the line. Various sizes are available.
A hollow plastic tube, with removable caps, for
storing floats in.
Any floating bait used to catch surface-feeding
fish. Commonly used floaters are cat and dog biscuits for carp, and
bread crust for rudd or chub.
Line that floats on the surface. Some makes of
line are designed to float, others can be made to float by greasing
them or spraying them with silicone line floatant. Floating lines
are useful when trotting, and when fishing floaters.
Ordinary large maggots that have
been made to float by placing them in just enough water to cover
them for about 20 minutes. They counter the weight of the hook, and
are a useful stillwater hookbait, especially in summer when fishing
on the drop for fish feeding up in the water.
Maggots that are dyed
fluorescent colours are sometimes known as fluoro maggots.
An Avon float with a fluted body, to grip the
flow. Fluted Avons are rarely seen these days.
An Arlesey bomb with fluted sides to make it
more aerodynamic for long-distance casting.
Migrating between main rivers and tributaries.
Of or pertaining to streams or rivers.
The rate of fishing mortality for a given
exploitation pattern rate of growth and natural mortality, that
results in the maximum level of yield-per-recruit. This is the point
that defines growth overfishing.
Unossified gap between cranial bones.
A metal footrest that can be attached to the
front of a platform, or to extendable legs fixed to a seat box. A
foot platform is useful when sitting in shallow water or on a steep
Small fish which breed prolifically and serve
as food for predatory fish.
Forceps are essential to remove treble hooks as
well as single hooks that are too big for even the biggest
A hook made from metal that has been forged for
extra strength. Forged hooks are mainly used when fishing for big,
A streamlined swimfeeder
comprising a plastic frame around which groundbait can be moulded.
Designed originally for long-distance bream fishing on shallow still
waters, frame feeders are now most often used when fishing the
Any leger rig that allows a fish to
run with the bait without feeling any resistance from the leger
A floatfished livebait that is
not tethered to the spot by a heavy weight and which is free to swim
where it will with the float in tow.
Fishing with only a baited hook on the end of
your line, freelining is mainly used when fishing with a large bait
for big fish at close range in clear water. Frenum
the membrane that binds the lip to the snout or lower jaw.
The sudden rising of a stream or river by means
of heavy rain or melting snow
Front trolling A
system of boat control in which a bait or lure is trolled behind a
boat moving forward
A stage of development in young salmon or
trout. During this stage the fry is usually less than one year old,
has absorbed its yolk sac, is rearing in the stream, and is between
the alevin and parr stage of development.
A device for gently holding open the jaws of a
pike or zander to allow you to unhook it easily without cutting your
hand on the teeth of the fish.
A large metal hook for landing fish; prohibited
in some areas
A fish that is regulated by law for
To open the mouth wide. In Zoological terms, it
means the measurement of the widest possible opening of a mouth.
An ornamental variety of carp that is ghostly
white in appearance. Ghost carp are often stocked in commercial
A series of projections located along the front
edge of the gill arch.
The fleshy, and highly vascular organs
comparable to lungs used in aquatic respiration.
A clear gel used to prevent wet line freezing
to rod rings in winter.
An ornamental golden version of the orfe or
ide. It has been introduced to a number of still waters in Britain
where it grows to around 2.7kg (6lb).
Soft, white homebred maggots that are a deadly
hookbait for bream. Not commercially available, gozzers are the
larvae of a variety of bluebottle that only lays its eggs on fresh
meat and in the dark.
An imported, weed-eating species of carp
stocked in a few British still waters where it grows to about 9.1kg
A member of the salmon family that spawns at
the same time as coarse fish and not in January-March as other
salmon family members do. Despite this, it is still considered a
Hemp that has been grilled and crushed is sold
as an alternative groundbait additive to ordinary crushed hemp.
Salmon less than 22 inches (56cm) Fork Length
A stronger knot than a half-blood knot, for
tying line to eyed hooks or swivels.
Ground peanuts are a common
ingredient of Continental groundbaits, but are also sometimes sold
as a separate groundbait additive.
Breadcrumbs mixed with water and thrown in or
fed via a swimfeeder to attract fish, either on its own or with the
addition of other baits. Groundbait can also contain such things as
crushed hemp and ground maize, as well as any number of flavourings
A shallow, rigid or foldable
plastic bowl, with rounded corners to facilitate an even groundbait
A catapult with powerful
elastic and a large rigid cup for firing balls of groundbait into
A hookbait made from a stiff mix
of groundbait, used in conjunction with groundbait, mainly to catch
The rate of fishing, as
indicated by an equilibrium yield-per-recruit curve, greater than
which the losses in weight from total mortality exceed the gain in
weight due to growth. This point is defined as Fmax.
A small, streamlined, bottom-feeding shoal
fish, similar in appearance to barbel, but seldom exceeding 28g
(1oz), gudgeon are found mainly in rivers and canals, and are
sometimes targeted by match anglers.
Loops along the length of the rod through which
the line is passed
Lhe location where a plant or animal species
lives as determined by environmental factors
A rig originally devised to fool wary carp, but
now widely used for big fish of other species, a hair rig comprises
a bait, usually a boilie, mounted on a short plastic or nylon 'hair'
attached to the shank or eye of a bare hook.
The simplest and most widely
used knot for tying line to eyed hooks, swivels and Arlesey bombs.
A device used to incubate relatively small
numbers of fish eggs. The hatch box is usually located adjacent to a
stream, which supplies the box with water.
A hawg is a term used for a bragging size bass.
For Smallmouth that would be over 5 pounds
Small stream which is the beginning of a river
system hen a spawning female
A stock of fish experiencing production levels
consistent with its available habitat and within the natural
variations in survival for the stock.
A bolt rig devised by carp anglers
for tangle-free long-distance casting, comprising a weight fixed to
the end of the line, and a hooklength tied to a swivel trapped
between two beads fixed immediately above the weight, so the
hooklength can rotate 360 degrees. It is based on a simple fixed
Boiled and simmered until white shoots sprout
from the grains, hempseed is a widely used hookbait for roach, and
loosefeed for roach, carp, tench and barbel.
Heterocercal Said of the tail when the vertebrae curve
upward into the upper lobe of the caudal fin.
Also known as prestretched or low-diameter
lines, hi-tech nylon monofilament lines offer less stretch but more
strength for a given diameter than ordinary line. They are mainly
used for hooklengths in pole fishing, where the pole elastic
compensates for their lack of stretch.
Any specific position in a body of water to
which fish are attracted because of its cover or food
Trotting a float at a slower speed than the
surface current, so that the hookbait goes down the swim at the same
speed as, or slower than, the current at the bottom of the river.
The area that an animal traverses in the scope
of normal activities. This is not to be confused with territory,
which is the area an animal defends.
The ability of a salmon or steelhead to
correctly identify and return to their natal stream, following
maturation at sea.
A slang term used to describe a specific hole
or an area containing big fish and/or a high number of fish.
A plastic wallet with numerous sections for
storing spare spade-end hooks tied to nylon.
The length of line, usually of a lower breaking
strain than the main line, that joins the hook to the main line.
A small, hand-held device for tying line to
spade-end hooks, a hook tyer is particularly useful for tiny hooks.
A gel sometimes used by carp
anglers to stiffen part or the whole of soft-braided hooklengths.
A spade-end hook sold ready-tied to a
hooklength, with a loop ready-tied in the other end.
Hooks used in coarse fishing range from size 2,
the biggest, to size 28, the smallest. Fine wire, medium wire and
forged hooks are available, with or without barbs, and with spade
ends or eyes, and short or long shanks.
A presentation whereby a wobbling plug is
fished in a river directly downstream from a boat or wading angler
The scientific management and control of the
hatchery environment for the production of fish or wildlife.
A cross between two species of fish. The
commonest are roach/bream hybrids, once known as Pomeranian bream
and thought to be a separate species.
The science that deals with
the distribution, properties, and circulation of water on land
surface, in the soil, underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
The colder layer of water below the thermocline
ichthyology the study of fishes
A heavy weight joined to a length of rope by a
few feet of chain, ice-breakers are commonly used by match anglers
on frozen canals.
The specific branch of zoology that deals with
the study of fishes.
Lying lapped over each other in regular order
(like scales of a fish or shingles on a roof).
Referring to the movement of organisms into an
area. See emigration and migrating.
The physiological and behavioral process by
which migratory fish assimilate environmental cues to aid their
return to their stream of origin as adults.
Mating or crossing of individuals more closely
related that average pairs in the population.
The period of time from egg fertilization until
A buoyant material, also known as Sarkandas,
often used to make wagglers.
The type of mouth that opens on
the ventral surface (like sturgeon).
method Inserting an air bubble into a worm with a hypodermic
Of Fishing Mortality
When fishing and
natural mortality act concurrently, F is equal to the instantaneous
total mortality rate, multiplied by the ratio of fishing deaths to
all deaths. Also called; rate of fishing; instan- taneous rate of
fishing; *force of fishing mortality .
The natural logarithm of the
ratio of final weigl1t to initial weight of a fish in a unit of
time, usually a year. When applied collectively to all fish of a
given age in a stock, the possibility of selective morta lity must
be considered .
The natural logarithm (with
sign changed) of the survival rate. The ratio of number of deaths
per unit of time to population abundance during that time, if all
deceased fish were to be immediately replaced so that population
does not change. Also called; *coefficient of decrease.
Of Natural Mortality
When natural and
fishing mortality operate concurrently it is equal to the
instantaneous total mortality rate, multi- plied by the ratio of
natural deaths to all deaths. Also called; *force of natural
"Number of fish that grow
to catchable size per short interval of time, divided by the number
of catchable fish already present at that time. Usually given on a
yearly basis; that is, the figure just described is divided by the
fraction of a year represented by the ""short interval"" in
question. This concept is used principally when the size of the
vulnerable stock is not changing or is changing only slowly, since
among fishes recruitment is not usually associated with stock size
in the direct way in which mortality and growth are."
Of Surplus Production
"Equal to rate of
growth plus rate of recruitment less rate of natural mortality--all
in terms of weight and on an instantaneous basis. In a ""balanced""
or equilibrium fishery, this increment replaces what is removed by
fishing, and rate of surplus production is numerically equal to rate
of fishing. Also called; *instantaneous rate of natural increase."
The space between the eyes.
intentional or accidental placement of fish in a body of water;
intentional scientific introduction of fish is also called
A bomb with a lengthways hole through which you
run the line, mainly used in the larger sizes in rigs for carp.
A waggler with a tip made from a
short length of thin cane, reed, plastic or peacock quill, for
Stream and terrestrial
invertebrates that float with the current.
See 'body-up pole float'.
A larger than normal type of
brandling, found in Ireland.
Species that reproduce repeatedly during their
A pike of any size up to about 4.5kg (10lb).
Very large stick baits which the angler must
jerk to impart action
Imparting an up-and-down or sideways action to
Lures with a lead head moulded around the hook;
many are dressed with fur, plastic, or feathers
A fine powder for sprinkling on damp jokers to
separate them for more even mixing into groundbait.
Small, red, gnat larvae, collected from
polluted streams and used almost exclusively by match anglers for
small fish on canals, as a hookbait and as feed, often in
conjunction with bloodworm.
A small ring whipped on to the butt section of
some rods, to hold the hook when the tackled-up rod is not in use.
A round or rectangular nylon mesh tube, with a
screw-thread attachment for a bank stick, and rigid plastic
shape-retaining hoops, for temporarily retaining fish in the water's
Damage caused to the scales or
fins of fish by the mesh of badly designed keepnets.
A spent or spawned out steelhead salmon.
A pointed tool, often combined with a
disgorger, for unpicking unwanted knots in your line.
The distinctive hooked jaw that male salmon
develop during spawning.
Small abundant crustaceans that form an
important part of the food chain in Antarctic waters.
Broad categories of lake
types; eg. " oligotrophic, " " mesotrophic, " and " eutrophic "
Specific water zones; e.g., shallow water.
A small, boneless, eel-like jawless fish, found
in clear, fast streams. It lives as a parasite and scavenger and is
highly prized as a livebait or deadbait for chub and pike.
An essential aid for landing fish too big to be
lifted straight from the water, a landing net comprises a round or
triangular mesh head, and a one-piece, take-apart or telescopic
Any species that is limited to a
body of fresh water without access to the sea
A series of sensory pores opening to the
exterior along the side of fish.
Float fishing overdepth, usually with a
top-and-bottom float, to present a still bait on the bottom.
The transition between the line and the lure,
often made of heavier line, lighter line, or wire
A scaleless variant of the common carp.
See 'Damp leem', 'Dry leem'.
Using a rig incorporating a weight, such as an
Arlesey bomb, and no float, to present a still bait on the bottom.
A leger bead is a small plastic bead that runs
on the main line. It has a small side-eye to which the swimfeeder,
weight or link is attached.
A short, hollow plastic tube, used in leger
rigs, through which the line is threaded. They are most common in
A small plastic sleeve held in place on the
line with a removable plastic peg, used to stop a sliding leger
weight or swimfeeder the required distance from the hook.
An arrangement of recorded
lengths which indicates the number of times each length or length
Characterizing aquatic communities found in
A bite which shows up on a float by the float
rising up in the water. It is caused by the biting fish taking the
weight of some of the shot on the line.
A method devised primarily for stillwater
tench, featuring a quill float attached bottom-end only, and all the
shot close to the hook, which is fished on the bottom. When a fish
picks up the bait and shot you get a clear lift bite.
Refers to intensity of
daylight; e.g., cloudy day -- low light conditions, sunny day --
high light conditions
A stick float with a stem made of
lignum, a heavy wood that sinks in water. This produces a stable
float that can be cast farther, and held back harder, than a
cane-stemmed stick float, but not one suitable for fishing on the
Referring to a standing water Ecosystem (ponds
The study of lakes, ponds and streams.
A line bite, or liner, is a false bite from a
fish swimming into or close to the line. Line bites are commonest
when legering for bream and float fishing for small carp.
A small clip found on the spools of many
fixed-spool reels, designed to retain the end of the line when not
in use. When legering or float fishing at long range for fish that
do not fight hard, such as bream and roach, clipping the line up
after casting to the required spot at the start ensures that you
cast the right distance every time throughout the rest of the
A liquid specially designed for spraying on to
line to make it float.
A plastic, grease-filled device that clips on
to the rod. Winding the line through the greaser coats it in grease
to make it float.
Fishing line is often rated by
pound-test, which refers to the amount of steady strain a line can
withstand; other factors are limpness, shock and abrasion
resistance, diameter, and elasticity
A needle-like tool to make it easier to thread
the line through rod rings. It is particularly useful when tackling
up in the dark, and in cold weather when fingers are numb.
Quivertipping close to the bank, downstream of
your rod, in running water, with light tackle and a small Arlesey
bomb or one or two swan shot on a link (a length of line).
As the name implies this is a
crankbait that doesn't have a lip or bill. They are designed with a
sloping front and large treble hooks to be retrieved through a
variety of cover. They range in sizes from about 1/8 ounce to one
ounce. They are usually worked around weeds, rocks and other types
of shallow cover
Fresh white bread chopped into
fine particles in a food processor, to use as groundbait when
fishing punched bread.
A style of feeding whereby a small
amount of feed is thrown into the swim at regular and frequent
The region of land bordering a body of water.
A container filled with water and often
equipped with accessories such as aeration equipment that is used to
hold and transport live fish.
A live fish that is used as a hookbait, mainly
by anglers fishing for pike, zander, perch or catfish.
A water-filled container, usually
with an aerator attached, for storing livebaits.
There are two species of loach in British
waters - the stone loach and the spined loach. They feed on the
bottom and grow to around 56-85g (2-3oz).
Any float, but usually a waggler, in which some
or even all of the shot capacity is built into the base in the form
of brass or lead rod.
A large garden worm that can be used whole or
in sections on the hook, especially for eels, chub, tench, carp,
barbel, bream and roach, or chopped up for use as feed.
Two or more split shot used to lock a waggler
on to the line, to hold the float in place and provide casting
A diary in which to keep a record of fishing
trips, recording such data as baits and methods used, number and
size of fish caught, and weather and water conditions.
Available in lengths up to 16m (52ft), in
1-1.5m (3-5ft) sections, long poles are mainly used in match
fishing, to fish light float rigs, usually on a short line. This can
allow greater speed and accuracy, better bait presentation and a
higher proportion of bites hit, than fishing a running line with a
rod and reel. The top sections of the pole are usually fitted with
shock-absorbing elastic, for playing fish.
Fishing a long pole to hand, with a rig the
same length as the pole. Long-lining is mainly used for trotting.
A hook with a long shank makes
unhooking small-mouthed fish easier when fishing with very small
hooks (sizes 20 and below).
The largest annual harvest in
weight that could be removed from a fish stock year after year,
under existing environmental conditions. This can be estimated in
various ways, from maximum values from production models to average
observed catches over a suitable period of years.
Fishing with a swimfeeder sliding on a 15-30cm
(6-12in) loop tied in the main line above the hooklength. The rig
ensures tangle-free casting, and is most often used on running water
in conjunction with the bow method.
A simple and strong way of joining
two lengths of line, particularly the hooklength and reel line.
Throwing samples of bait into your swim, by
hand or by catapult, without the aid of groundbait, to attract fish
and induce them to feed. Loosefeeding is usually best done on a
A catapult for loosefeeding
baits such as maggots, casters and hemp. Models with different
strength elastics and different-sized pouches or cups are available.
Meaning or regarding things in running water.
A widely used bait, especially for carp,
barbel, tench and chub, luncheon meat can be used straight from the
tin or fried, coloured and flavoured.
A slang term used to describe a very large
Fishing with an artificial lure - a fly,
spinner, spoon or plug - usually for pike or perch.
MFU - Maritime
organization representing inshore fish harvesters made up of MFU
Locals throughout the Maritimes.
Invertebrates visible to the naked eye, such as
insect larvae and crayfish.
"The largest catch that can be
maintained from the population, at whatever level of stock size,
over an indefinite period. It will be identical to the sustainable
yield for populations below the level giving the MSY, and equal to
the MSY for populations at or above this level""."
A sticky white powder used to bind maggots into
a ball so that you can catapult them accurately over long distances.
A riddle designed to separate dead skins and
freshly turned casters from large maggots. It is also useful for
sieving freshly mixed groundbait to remove any lumps.
Large maggots, the larvae of bluebottles, are
the most commonly used bait in coarse fishing. They can be bought in
their natural white colour or dyed a variety of colours.
Maize meal is a good medium in which to keep
and clean maggots and pinkies, and is a useful groundbait additive,
especially when you want a heavy mix.
Pertaining to the lower jaw.
A large, easily seen float, fixed on the line
above a heavy weight and cast in with a spare rod when fishing at
long range on still waters, to act as a marker when casting and
A small shot incorporated into an overdepth
float rig and positioned on the line to mark the exact depth.
Often used as a floating bait for carp.
Stale bread soaked in a bucket of water to use
as groundbait when fishing with flake or crust on the hook,
especially on rivers in winter for roach and chub.
The upper jaw, the upper jaw
The largest average catch or yield
that can continuously be taken from a stock under existing
environmental conditions. (For species with fluctuating recruitment,
the maximum might be obtained by taking fewer fish in some years
than in others.) Also called; maximum equilibrium catch ; maximum
sustained yield; sustainable catch.
Small, wiry grubs that can be an effective
hookbait, especially for roach.
Hooks made from medium-gauge wire
are stronger than fine-wire hooks but not as strong as forged hooks;
they are good all-round hooks.
This keeps a float trotting in a
straight line. The angler momentarily traps the line against the
spool with a finger as it peels off the reel, and flicks the rod tip
to keep the line behind the float.
Pertaining to the chin or mentum.
The middle stage of a lake's geological aging
process; these lakes are usually fertile, warm to cool bodies
The rate at which a fish's biological functions
occur; i.e., breathing, digestion
See 'The Method'.
An adapted frame swimfeeder
incorporating heavy, shock-absorbing pole elastic, for fishing the
A hook with a tiny barb to minimize
damage to the mouth of a fish and to baits such as maggots.
A small plastic bung that fits inside the top
section of a pole and to which the elastic is attached, when only
the top section of pole is elasticated.
Boilies between mini and standard boilies in
size - usually around 10mm (2/5in) in diameter.
Life stage of anadromous and resident fish
species which moves from one locale, habitat or system (river or
ocean) to another.
Moving from one area of residence to another.
The sperm of fishes.
Minced beef used as loosefeed or with
groundbait when fishing slivers of steak on the hook for chub.
Small boilies of about 6mm-10mm (1/5-2/5 in) in
A shoal fish found in running water but rarely
exceeding 7.5cm (3in) in length. Minnows are regarded as a nuisance
by most anglers, but make effective livebaits or deadbaits for
perch, eels and chub.
A device made from a bottle that is baited with
bread and lowered into the water on a string to catch minnows.
A variety of common carp with only a few large
A stock whose individuals originated from
commingled native and non-native parents; or a previously native
stock that has undergone substantial genetic alteration.
Pet food mixers which make excellent floating
baits for carp.
A sweet, sticky groundbait additive that is
especially attractive to bream.
A groundbait binder popular with
match anglers, especially when used with bloodworm and joker and
with chopped worm.
A bite indicator used when
legering. It incorporates a bobbin that slides up and down a metal
Single-strand nylon, the material from which
ordinary fishing line is made.
body shape of a species
The number of fish lost or the rate of loss.
Locational shift of fish from one area to
another, usually on a daily or seasonal basis
Plastic or metal discs placed under the legs of
a platform or seat box to stop it sinking into soft mud.
A type of reel that incorporates a
revolving spool, and is most often used when spinning or trolling
A hooklength material comprising
numerous soft, fine strands that separate in water, making it very
hard to see. It is designed to fool wary fish such as big carp.
The muscle segments.
A useful tool for neatly trimming the line
close to knots.
A hook with a narrow gape between
point and shank. Narrow-gaped hooks are usually long-shanked and
fine-wire, with a crystal bend, for use with small baits such as
Stream of birth.
Deaths in a fish stock caused
by predation, pollution, senility, etc., but not fishing.
Populations of fish that
have completed their entire life cycle in the natural environment
without human intervention.
Net Increase (or
New body substance elaborated
in a stock, less the loss from all forms of mortality.
Fish at the lowest feeding mood, usually
stressed by one or more factors in their environment
The middle stage of fish activity
A plastic device for determining
the exact amount of shotting needed to cock a pole float when making
up pole rigs at home.
A condition suffered by fish
when taken suddenly from deep water to the surface, causing
expanding gases by rapid decompression
The sum of the catches that are landed
(expressed as live weight or equivalents). Nominal catches do not
include unreported discards.
A special long, soft rod that can handle light
Various kinds of nuts can be used to catch
carp, but they must be soaked and cooked, otherwise they can swell
up inside a carp's stomach and kill it.
Flies made to sink below the surface of the
water and imitate immature insects
A population of fish that returns to its
natural spawning grounds in odd numbered years, such as the pink
A hook with the point bent at a slight angle to
the shank. If you lay this kind of hook down, it will not sit flat.
A body of water that is deficient in dissolved
nutrients, but can be rich in oxygen.
A teardrop-shaped weight, used as a bulk in
pole float rigs, that threads on to the line and is held in place
with shot or a small plastic peg.
A plastic swimfeeder with no
end caps, so that it can be filled with groundbait. It is punched
with holes to quicken the release of its contents in the water.
Upper water layer of a lake, from the outside
edge of the first major drop-off down to the deep-water zone
Refers to the largest bone in the operculum.
The gill cover.
(OY) The yield from a fishery which provides
the greatest overall benefit to the nation with particular reference
to food production and recreational opportunities; it is based on
MSY as modified by economic, social or ecological factors. Precision
and Accuracy Precision is the closeness to each other of repeated
measurements of the same quantity or object, while accuracy is
closeness of a measured or computed value to its true value.
Minnows, insects, worms, fish eggs, cut bait,
cheese, or similar substances used as a lure.
The migration of fish down the river system to
Hatchery reared fish released into streams for
rearing and maturing away from the hatchery sites.
A hook with the point curved slightly away from
the shank, to make it more difficult for a biting fish to eject the
bait without the point pricking its mouth. Outpoint hooks are mostly
used with hair-rigged baits.
A U shaped bend in a river or stream.
The necessary amount of dissolved oxygen to
sustain fish, supplied by current, wind, and the photosynthesis of
A sweet, sticky, powdery groundbait additive,
useful when you need a heavy mix that goes straight to the bottom
and breaks up in the water very slowly.
Paired bones in the roof of the mouth, lateral
to vomer; may bear teeth.
Small fish, usually of the sunfish variety such
A small fleshy projection.
Covered with papilla.
"A ""constant"" or numerical description of
some property of a population (which may be real or imaginary). Cf.
Organisms that infest and draw nourishment from
a host, including game fish
Pared bones on posterior roof of skull, lateral
The developmental life stage of salmon and
trout between alevin and smolt, when the young have developed parr
marks and are actively feeding in fresh water.
Distinctive vertical bars on the sides of young
A term used by carp anglers to
describe small baits, such as maggots, hemp, casters, beans and
peas, that are fed in large quantities.
A tasteless, odourless and harmless substance
for sticking large numbers of small baits such as hemp to a large
Transponder (PIT) tags
Integrated Transponder tags are used for identifying individual
salmon for monitoring and research purposes. This miniaturized tag
consists of an integrated microchip that is programmed to include
specific fish information. The tag is inserted into the body cavity
of the fish and decoded at selected monitoring sites.
A rig in which hooklength branches
from the main line, rather than being a continuation of it.
Any reoccurring locational/presentational
situation, which can be duplicated elsewhere in the body of water
Sections of quill from the tail feathers of
peacocks are often used to make waggler floats.
A period in the seasonal cycle of a species
that is marked by high activity and is very productive for the
A popular groundbait additive that gives a
dark, fluffy, cloudy mix without adding food value.
The anterior(front) paired fins, attached to
pectoral (shoulder) girdle.
A numbered swim drawn by a competitor in a
Of or in the open ocean or open water.
Posterior paired fins, located in the abdominal
position or towards the rear.
Also known as a pike waggler, a pencil float is
a large but slim balsa or hollow plastic float used when float
fishing small livebaits or deadbaits for pike or zander in still or
slow waters. It is attached bottom-end only.
A spicy sausage, chunks of which can be used as
a bait for barbel, chub, tench and carp.
A large-mouthed, boldly striped, predatory
shoal fish found in all types of water, perch grow to 2.3kg (5lb) or
more in weight, but a 0.9kg (2lb) fish is a specimen. They are most
often caught on livebaits or deadbaits.
Membrane lining the body cavity.
Tinned dog and cat food, cat and dog biscuits,
bird seed mixes, and fish pellets and flakes can all be used to make
paste baits, mainly for carp, while cat and dog biscuits can also be
used as floating baits, again mainly for carp.
The system of measuring the level of acidity in
a liquid on a scale of O to 14; each fish species has a preferred pH
Teeth located behind the gills and
before the esophagus, and anchored in bone.
Microscopic floating plants, mainly algae, that
live suspended in bodies of water and that drift about because they
cannot move by themselves or because they are too small or too weak
to swim effectively against a current.
Inverted pheasant quills make
sensitive floats similar to crowquills and balsa wagglers.
Dried and powdered pigeon
droppings are a common ingredient of Continental groundbaits,
especially those aimed at roach.
A streamlined, predatory fish found in all
types of water and growing to 18kg (40lb) or more, although a 9.1kg
(20lb) fish is a specimen. Pike are best fished for with artificial
lures, livebaits or deadbaits.
A bulbous float designed to support a livebait
or deadbait when fishing for pike.
Large artificial flies that imitate small fish,
and used when fly-fishing for pike.
A rod designed for pike fishing, usually 3.7m
(12ft) long, with a test curve of 0.9-1.4kg (2-3lb). Rods with
different test curves, tapers and actions are available for
different kinds of piking.
A pike slider is a streamlined balsa or hollow
plastic float with a hole running through its length. It is threaded
on the line in sliding float rigs and stopped the required distance
from the bait by a bead and stop knot.
A long mesh tube with a drawstring, designed
for temporarily retaining pike in the water's edge.
Small, lively, pinkish-white maggots that are
the larvae of the greenbottle, pinkies are mainly used by match
anglers on canals and still waters. Coloured pinkies are available,
the commonest colours being bronze, red and fluorescent pink.
"Individual items, as in the expression ""two
dollars a piece"" . Individual fish."
Small plate-like scales that have a rough
exterior edge found on sharks and related species.
Minute floating forms of microscopic plants and
animals in water which cannot get about to any extent under their
own power. They form the important beginnings of food chains for
Plastic-stemmed stick floats
make excellent all-round stick floats, the plastic being heavier
than cane but lighter than wire, and allowing you to fish on the
drop while retaining stability.
Soft, pliable lures made of plastic; available
in an infinite variety of designs
A portable, lightweight aluminium platform with
adjustable legs. Platforms make useful bait box stands, seats, and
bases for seat boxes, especially on venues with sloping banks or
A three-dimensional lure that runs on top of or
through the water; also called a crank bait bait.
A small weight that is attached to the hook to
ascertain the exact depth of your swim when float fishing.
An extension of land which slopes into deep
A stick float with a pointed top
can be dotted right down for extra sensitivity. Less stable and less
visible than a domed-top stick float, it is best used for fishing
off the bottom in steady water at close range.
Polarizing sunglasses are
useful when stalking fish in clear water, as they cut out surface
glare and make it easier to see into the water.
A tapered plastic cone to which the pole
elastic is attached, and which fits tightly inside one of the top
sections of the pole.
A catapult designed for loosefeeding maggots,
hemp or casters one-handed while fishing the long pole.
A plastic cup that clips securely near the tip
of a pole, for accurately loosefeeding or groundbaiting a swim when
short-lining with a long pole.
A seat-box cushion with a central groove, to
allow you to sit safely and comfortably on the butt section when
fishing the long pole.
Elastic, of various grades, that is fitted
inside the top sections of pole, to act as a shock-absorber when
striking into and playing fish.
A liquid designed to
facilitate the smooth passage of elastic from inside a pole, to
allow smooth playing of fish without jerking them off the hook.
A small plastic device, fitted
just above a pole bung, on which the pole elastic can be wound to
adjust its tension.
A length of springy wire for
threading elastic through one or more sections of pole.
A canned spray that dries into
a hard sheen and reduces wear on the joints of a pole.
A canned, carbon-based spray
that restores loose, worn pole joints.
A pair of hooped rests, usually attached to the
side of a seat-box, used to support a long pole out over the water.
A support with rolling bars that, when
positioned behind you, allows you to feed a long pole back and forth
An umbrella with a hole in one panel through
which you can feed a long pole back and forth.
A plastic or rubber buffer
that fits on to the butt of a pole to protect it from damage in use.
A plastic holder on which to store a ready tied
A looped rubber tether to secure
the line at the end of a pole float rig to its winder.
Polyballs are small balls of polystyrene of
various sizes. They can be used to pop-up deadbaits. They can also
be incorporated into various float and leger rigs by threading them
on to the line with a boilie needle.
A body of water smaller than a lake, often
A deep, slack area of a pool or river
A boilie made buoyant by microwaving it, or by
the insertion of a piece of rig foam.
A deadbait made buoyant by
being injected with air or by the insertion of polystyrene balls or
Referring to fish intent on feeding; also
Thick, shock-absorbing line used to connect a
weight or swimfeeder to the main line when casting long distances.
Baiting up a swim before fishing it, either the
day or night before, or over a period of several days or even weeks.
The relationship of
baitfish and other forage to the fish which eat them
The act of placing the correct bait at the
correct depth and speed to trigger a response from the fish
A juvenile salmon or steelhead that has not yet
reached the physiological state known as a smolt.
Generally refers to
non-fishery mortality of adult salmon and steelhead between the time
the fish enter the Columbia River and the completion of spawning.
Fish that have matured quickly, or faster than
the remaining fish of its age-class.
Hunting and killing another animal for food.
The paired bones forming the front of the upper
The large membrane bone lying in front of and
parallel to the opercle.
The membrane bone lying in front of and below
1. The total elaboration of new body substance
in a stock in a unit of time, irrespective of whether or not it
survives to the end of that time. Also called; *net production ;
*total production. 2. *Yield.
Bones of the roof of the mouth lying behind and
articulating with the palatines.
A Teflon tube that fits on to the tip of a pole
to allow the smooth, friction-free passage of pole elastic.
Various kinds of pulses (beans and peas) can be
used to catch carp, but they must be soaked and cooked, otherwise
they can swell up inside a carp's stomach and kill it.
Commercially produced white breadcrumb
groundbait for use when fishing punched bread on the hook.
A take-apart pole in which the base of each
section fits inside the top of the next. Put-in poles tend to be
heavier and stronger than put-over poles, and are most often used
when fishing for carp or when fishing to hand for big weights of
A take-apart pole in which the base of each
section fits over the top of the next. Put-over poles tend to be
lighter and easier to unship than put-in poles. Most ordinary long
poles have put-over joints.
A material that dissolves in water, PVA comes
in tape, bag and string form for a variety of uses, such as
attaching a string of boilies to the hook.
Pertaining to that part of the stomach from
which the intestine leads.
A projection in the form of a
blind sac attached to the intestine near the posterior end of the
A rod holdall designed to carry rods ready
made-up with reels and rigs attached.
A bite indicator for legering that comprises a
ringed length of fine, flexible, tapered fibre-glass or carbon
fibre. Some quivertips screw into the tip ring of an ordinary leger
rod, but most quivertip rods either have a built-in quivertip.
Automatic measurement and transmission of data
from remote sources via radio to a receiving station for recording
A branch; a projecting part.
The fraction, by number, of
the fish in a population at a given time, which is caught and killed
by man during the year immediately following . The term may also be
applied to separate parts of the stock distinguished by size, sex,
etc. Also called; *fishing coefficient .
An inexactly-defined term that
can mean either rate of exploitation or rate of fishing--depending
on the context .
Similar to rate of
exploitation, except that only the fish landed are considered. The
distinction between catch and landings is important when
considerable quantities of fish are discarded at sea.
One of the supports of a fin.
To feed and grow in a natural or artificial
Refers to the amount of time that juvenile fish
spend feeding in nursery areas of rivers, lakes, streams and
estuaries before migration.
The amount of fish added to the exploitable
stock each year due to growth and/or migration into the fishing
area. For example, the number of fish that grow to become vulnerable
to the fishing gear in one year would be the recruitment to the
fishable population that year. This term is also used in referring
to the number of fish from a year class reaching a certain age. For
example, all fish reaching their second year would be age 2
recruits. Recruitment Curve, Reproduction Curve; A graph of the
progeny of a spawning at the time they reach a specified age (for
example, the age at which half of the brood has become vulnerable to
fishing), plotted against the abundance of the stock that produced
The rate of fishing above
which the recruitment to the exploitable stock becomes significantly
reduced. This is characterized by a greatly reduced spawning stock,
a decreasing proportion of older fish in the catch, and generally
very low recruitment year after year.
The total numbers of fish of a specific stock
available at a particular stage of their life history.
A nest of fish eggs covered with gravel.
Small (2.5-5cm/1-2in) red worm found in compost
and manure heaps. Redworms are a good bait for many fish, especially
bream and perch, and are easy to breed in a wormery.
Sliding plastic, carbon or metal sleeves
attached to the handle of a rod to secure the reel in place. Some
rods have fixed screw-fittings.
An estimate of actual or
absolute abundance; usually stated as some kind of index; for
example, as bottom trawl survey stratified mean catch per tow.
To produce offspring.
Species of fish which spend
their entire lives in freshwater.
The various ways of working a cast lure back to
A summer method of fishing for dace in
mid-water with a waggler and maggots by spraying the surface with
maggots and striking repeatedly each cast until a fish is hooked.
Fishing equipment; most often refers to an
outfitted boat or specially prepared terminal tackle
Buoyant foam rubber, which you can use to make
pop-up boilies and pop-up deadbaits.
A wide, multi-notched device for neatly keeping
spare, ready-rigged top sections of pole clear of the water or of
bankside vegetation. It screws into a bank stick.
A large plastic drum around which you can wind
and store spare carp or pike leger rigs.
Lengths of plastic tubing used mainly by carp
anglers to create tangle-free leger rigs.
A large plastic wallet with envelopes in which
you can store ready-made pike or carp rigs.
According to the
geological aging process, rivers or sections of rivers are
classified as young, middle aged, or mature; young rivers are
usually at headwaters and low in fertility; middle-aged sections are
further downstream and more fertile; mature sections have deeper,
slower-moving waters with high fertility and lower oxygen levels
A small stream or brook.
A silvery, bottom-feeding shoal fish,
widespread in all types of water and growing to 1.8kg (4lb) or more,
although a 0.9kg (2lb) roach is the fish of a lifetime.
A nylon or cloth bag for storing a rod, usually
with a separate compartment for each section of rod.
A large, waterproof nylon tube with carrying
straps, for transporting your rods, poles, bank sticks and umbrella.
A device attached to the decking of a boat in
which you place your rod; useful when trolling large baits
By law, all coarse anglers must carry a
temporary or annual rod licence purchased from a Post Office.
A stable, rigid metal frame, with attachments
for buzzer bars, for supporting one or more rods when legering. Rod
pods are mainly used when fishing for big carp. They are very useful
on hard banks.
A plastic device that screws into a bankstick,
used to support a rod clear of the ground and water. Various kinds
are available to support both the butt and top of a rod.
The taper of a rod determines the way in which
it bends. Fast-taper rods have a tip action, slow-taper rods a
through-action. Some rods have compound tapers, which share some of
the attributes of both types.
Rigid plastic tubes, usually with caps, for
safe storage of rods inside a rod holdall.
The eggs of fishes.
One of the basic fly casting methods whereby
the line is rolled directly off the water
Fishing running water with a leger rig that
rolls and bounces along the bottom with the current.
A length of weak line connecting a leger weight
or swimfeeder to the main line, used in snaggy swims so that you
lose only the weight or swimfeeder and not the fish should the
weight become snagged during the fight. It also ensures that a fish
cannot become tethered to a snag should the line break over the rig.
Those species of fish considered to be of
either poor fighting quality when taken on tackle or of poor eating
quality, such as carp, gar, suckers, etc. Most species in this group
are more tolerant of widely fluctuating environmental conditions
than Game Fish.
Run (of fish)
A group of fish of the same species that
migrate together up a stream to spawn, usually associated with the
seasons, e.g., fall, spring, summer, and winter runs. Members of a
run interbreed, and may be genetically distinguishable from other
individuals of the same species.
Hooks with round bends have a wider
gape than hooks with crystal bends and are therefore better for
large baits such as bread, worms, luncheon meat and sweetcorn.
A pole float with a spherical or
bulbous oval balsa body allows the bait to be inched through the
swim in running water without the float riding out of the water.
Travelling light and moving from swim to swim,
fishing each one for only a short period of time.
A lure made from soft rubber shaped to imitate
a small fish, and fitted with trebles to catch mainly pike and
A silvery-gold, surface-feeding shoal fish
found mainly in still waters. Frequently confused with roach, with
which it often hybridizes, rudd grow to a similar size.
A small (5-12.5cm/2-5in), bottom-feeding shoal
fish, found mostly in rivers and canals, and mainly of interest to
A pole float with a
rugby-ball shaped body is a good all-round pattern, being suitable
for still and slow waters, and for fishing on the drop or on the
A term used when a fish, usually a pike or
carp, picks up your bait and swims off with it.
Mainly used when legering for big fish, a run
clip is a plastic clip that traps the line against the rod just
above the reel, but releases the line when you get a run.
A leger rig in which the weight runs freely on
the line to minimize resistance to a biting fish.
A paternoster rig in which
the weight is attached to a short link that runs freely on the line.
Fish of the family Salmonidae, that includs
salmon and steelhead.
proportion or a segment of a fish stock which
is removed for study, and is assumed to be representative of the
whole. The greater the effort, in terms of both numbers and
magnitude of the samples, the greater the confidence that the
information obtained is a true reflection of the status of a stock
(level of abundance in terms of numbers or weight, age composition,
Small substrate particles, generally referring
to particles less than 2 mm in diameter. Sand is larger than silt
and smaller than cobble or rubble.
Flavoured or unflavoured sausage meat can be an
effective bait for carp, barbel, chub and tench.
Maggots that have been killed by
immersing them in boiling water, so that they cannot crawl away into
the bottom silt when fed into a swim.
In contrast to fishing by "luck,"
fishing based on the observation of the environment
An Arlesey bomb with a screw-in swivel
attachment to allow you to change the size of the bomb without
breaking down your whole rig.
An extendal bony plate, usually keeled.
Various sea fish, including sprats, sardines,
herrings, smelts and mackerel, make excellent deadbaits for pike.
A tackle box with a carrying strap, cushioned
seat, drawers and adjustable legs.
The organic material that is transported and
deposited by wind and water.
A float with all its shotting
loaded into the base, to present a slow-sinking bait with no shot on
See 'Bolt rig'.
Species that reproduce only once during their
Using the rod to drive the hook
through the mouth of the fish
The area of a lake from shore to
the first major drop-off
Section of hook between the eye and the point
A plug with a sharply angled vane,
so that it fishes just below the surface when retrieved.
Commercially produced boilies
containing food preservatives, shelf-life boilies are banned on some
A waggler or stick float rig,
with small shot spaced at regular intervals between the float and
the hook, for fishing on the drop.
A rubber bead that is used as buffer above
knots to absorb the shock of long-distance casts when legering or
A length of strong line, usually about 6-10m
(20-33ft) long, connecting the reel line to the rig, to absorb the
shock of long-distance casts when legering or swimfeeder-fishing.
Fishing a long pole with a rig that is shorter
than the length of pole being used.
A false bite that occurs when a fish, usually a
roach, mistakes a small shot on the line for a grain of hemp.
This is rig tubing which shrinks permanently
when boiling water is poured over it. It is useful in some
anti-tangle rigs when shrunk over links and other items which are
prone to tangling.
Mounting a bait such as a boilie on the shank
of a hook on the opposite side to the point.
Silicone rubber tubing of
different colours and diameters has a variety of uses - you can cut
float rubbers from lengths of it, use it to attach a Betalite to a
float and use it in many specialist rigs, such as semi-fixed leger
Soft, green, fine-stranded weed found growing
on rocks and weir sills in running water, silkweed can be used on
the hook to catch roach and dace.
A deep-bodied, silvery shoal fish that is often
mistaken for small, skimmer bronze bream. Silver bream are mainly
found in eastern England, and grow to about 1.4kg (3lb).
Sink and draw
A method of fishing a deadbait or lure by
pausing occasionally on the retrieve, which allows the bait to sink
and gives it an enticing erratic motion through the water.
Brands of line designed to sink are useful for
legering and waggler fishing as they sink below surface drift.
Lead weights of various designs and sizes used
to sink baits and lures
Substrate particles smaller than sand and
larger than clay.
Small bronze bream up to about 0.9kg (2lb) are
called skimmers. They have silvery rather than bronze flanks.
Usually a rubber or vinyl addition to a lure
that gives it action and texture
A method of fishing deep water
with a float sliding freely on the line. A stop knot tied of a short
length of different line and a bead above the float cock it at the
Pole floats with slim balsa bodies
are designed for fishing shallow still waters, or deeper still
waters on the drop.
A sinker threaded on the line which slides,
preventing the fish from feeling resistance
Large black slugs are a good bait for chub,
especially when freelined.
Refers to the salmonid or trout developmental
life stage between parr and adult, when the juvenile is at least one
year old and has adapted to the marine environment.
Refers to the physiological changes anadromous
salmonids and trout undergo in freshwater while migrating toward
saltwater that allow them to live in the ocean.
A system of boat control in
which a lure or bait is trolled in a weaving manner in order to
impart erratic action to a lure or to avoid spooking shallow fish;
sometimes called zigzagging
A swivel that allows rig
components to be clipped on and off the line without breaking down
the whole rig.
A wire trace with one or more sets of treble
hooks attached, used mainly in pike fishing.
A hook with leader material attached
Not commercially available,
sour-bran specials are small, soft maggots bred by leaving out a
shallow tray containing a mixture of vegetable water, bran and sour
A hook with a small spade rather
than an eye at the top of the shank. Spade-end hooks are mainly used
in the smaller sizes (16 and below).
The act of reproduction of fishes. The mixing
of the sperm of a male fish and the eggs of a female fish.
The total weight of all
sexually mature fish in the population. This quantity depends on
year class abundance, the exploitation pattern, the rate of growth,
fishing and natural mortality rates, the onset of sexual maturity
and environmental conditions.
lifetime contribution to the spawning stock biomass for a recruit of
a specific age (e.g., per age 2 individual). For a given
exploitation pattern, rate of growth, and natural mortality, an
expected equilibrium value of SSB/R can be calculated for each level
of F. A useful reference point is the level of SSB/R that would be
realized if there were no fishing. This is a maximum value for
SSB/R, and can be compared to levels of SSB/R generated under
different rates of fishing. For example, the maximum SSB/R for
Georges Bank haddock is approximately 9 kg for a recruit at age 1.
A system of boat control in
which a lure is trolled behind a boat moving at fast speed
The joint in a rod where one section fits
neatly into the other.
A closed-faced, push
button-operated reel which sits on top of a casting rod; ideally
suited for beginners
A single, median supporting element of a fin,
usually stiff. Distinguished from a ray in that it is single,
median, never branched or jointed.
A lure that consists of one or more blades
attached to a central wire shaft with a clevis; the blades spin.
Differs from an ordinary spinner in that the
blade is attached to one end of the bent safety pin wire and the
other end of the wire is moulded into the head of a Jig
This method uses a reel with a fixed spool hung
below a rod fitted with oversized guides; when the angler turns the
handle of the reel, a metal bail engages the line and deposits it on
A type of weight used for light tackle angling
that is pinched directly onto the line
Small, round, slotted weights that pinch on to
the line and are used when float fishing. Various sizes are
available, from number 13 (the smallest) to SSG, or swan shot (the
Frightening a fish spool the section of a reel
that holds the coiled fishing line
A knot for tying line to the spool of a reel.
Lures that are stamped from flat metal, varying
in size, weight, and thickness.
A string of closely spaced small split shot
used on the line in float rigs in place of larger bulk shot.
A legering bite indicator that screws into the
tip ring of a rod, a springtip comprises a length of plastic or cane
on a short spring.
Tiny white maggots that are the larvae of
houseflies, squatts are mainly used in groundbait for bream, but can
also be loosefed and used on the hook with light tackle on slow and
still waters for small fish. Squatts dyed red and bronze are
Placing more than one lure at
different depth intervals, using one rod, usually with the aid of a
Stealthily fishing for individual fish spotted
at close range in clear water.
A short, usually 2.4m (8ft), through-action rod
designed for catching large fish at close quarters in often tight,
The straight distance between the
tip of the snout and the base of the caudal fin rays.
procedure of maintaining methods and equipment as constant as
A small plastic tube, containing a chemical
that emits light for several hours, which can be attached to a float
or other bite indicator for fishing at night.
An appraisal of
exploitation is given for each stock discussed in the Species
Synopsis section using the terms unknown, protected, not exploited,
underexploited, moderately exploited, fully exploited, and
over-exploited. These terms describe the effect of current fishing
effort on each stock, and is based on current data and the knowledge
of the stocks over time.
Fishing with small slivers of raw steak on the
hook and feeding minced beef can be an effective method for chub.
Cigar-shaped plugs with no built-in action,
baits with added scents
A slim trotting float that is fished top and
bottom, a stick float comprises a buoyant balsa top and a heavier
cane, plastic, lignum or wire stem. Stick floats are mainly used
with light tackle and small baits such as maggots.
A tip-action float rod with a solid
spliced tip for a quick pick-up of the line on the strike when stick
The term strike zone is the area of water that
the fish is in and is willing to travel and chase after any
available bait/lure that passes through that area. This is usually a
relatively small area as far as depth is concerned. If a bass is in
8 feet of water its strike zone would be considered from about 4 to
8 feet. Depending on the water clarity it could go all the way to
the surface. To keep your lure in the strike zone you have to
remember that to get your lure to that depth you have to cast past
where you want your lure to go, consider the distance that the lure
has to travel as it's diving to get to that depth and then as it
nears your rod it starts to travel back out of the strike zone. It
sounds likes it's pretty complicated to do this but it really isn't
and only takes about a fraction of a second to think about it.
A small, hardy fish which is common throughout
much of Britain.
A specific population of fish spawning in a
particular stream during a particular season.
part of a fish population usually with a
particular migration pattern, specific spawning grounds, and subject
to a distinct fishery. A fish stock may be treated as a total or a
spawning stock Total stock refers to both juveniles and adults,
either in numbers or by weight, while spawning stock refers to the
numbers or weight of individuals which are old enough to reproduce.
Rock fragments larger than 25.4 cm (10 inches)
but less than 60.4 cm (24 inches).
A small, sleeved plastic device for connecting
the float rig to the elastic when fishing the pole.
A waggler with no body or
insert, mainly used for fishing at full depth in running water.
A natural phenomena of adult spawners not
returning to their natal stream, but entering and spawning in some
Wet flies made of feathers usually imitating
The instant a fish contacts a bait
A number of boilies attached to the hook with
soluble PVA string to act as free offerings close to your hookbait
in the water.
A small, hand-held tool like a
long, thin crochet hook, for threading a string of boilies on to a
Line pulling line off the reel by hand
Any natural or man-made physical feature in a
body of water; e.g., boulders, docks, weeds
Fish whose growth is severely hampered by
environmental factors such as overpopulation
A tool for pinching Styls on to the line with
Small, elongated split shot preferred to
ordinary small shot by some anglers for delicate pole rigs.
Said of pelvic fins when placed
forward on abdomen but not attached internally to pectoral girdle.
A developmental life stage when fish exhibit
most but not all traits of an adult fish.
Pores found in some species that
are located on the underside of the lower jaw
Lures designed to run at shallow
A float rig for pike fishing
where the bait is on a separate link, making it a paternoster. The
float's only purpose is to hold the rig off the bottom and has no
bite detection function, so it sits below the surface.
A well-defined set of interacting individuals
that compose a proportion of a larger, interbreeding population.
A population of a species occupying a
particular geographic area, or less commonly, a distinct habitat,
capable of interbreeding with other populations of the same species.
A developmental life stage of fish that are
less than one year old.
Catch per unit of effort.
A small bone attached to the posterior end of
the maxilla, dorsally.
A plug that floats and splashes across the
surface on the retrieve. They are mostly used to catch summer pike.
Production of new weight by a
fishable stock, plus recruits added to it, less what is removed by
natural mortality. This is usually estimated as the catch in a given
year plus the increase in stock size (or less the decrease). Also
called; natural increase, sustainable yield, equilibrium catch .
Number of fish alive after a specified time
interval, divided by the initial number. Usually on a yearly basis.
Fish holding in an area anywhere
off bottom to the surface
The number or weight of fish in a
stock that can be taken by fishing without reducing the stock
biomass from year to year, assuming that environmental conditions
remain the same.
Frozen or tinned sweetcorn is an effective bait
for many fish, and can readily be dyed and flavoured.
The area of water within casting range of your
fishing position, and in which you are fishing.
A weighted, plastic device used in place of a
leger weight and filled with groundbait or particle baits such as
maggots, to attract fish into the vicinity of your hookbait.
An 3.4-4m (11-13ft) rod, usually
incorporating one or more interchangeable push-in quivertips, but
with a stiffer middle section than an ordinary quivertip rod, for
casting swimfeeders. Light, medium and heavy models are available.
A salmonid fry that is swimming in the water
column in search for food.
A bite indicator used in legering that
comprises a swinging arm that you attach to your line between the
reel and the butt ring. As a fish takes, it pulls the swinger up
giving a visible indication of the bite.
A sensitive, screw-in rod-top bite indicator
for stillwater legering that comprises a 30cm (12in) or so length of
cane or plastic hanging from a rubber hinge. kinking.
Attached to line which prevents line twist
Total allowable catch is the total regulated
catch from a stock in a given time period, usually a year.
The length of line, including the hooklength,
between the hook and a leger or paternoster.
A method of landing a fish by grasping it near
An area that slopes gradually and evenly
towards deeper water
Main or lead line that decreases in diameter
towards both ends (double taper) or towards one end (weight forward
and shooting heads)
A large seed bait commonly used on the hook in
conjunction with loosefed hempseed for roach.
A circular or square plastic plate screwed into
a bank stick and positioned behind a rod-top bite indicator such as
a quivertip, to make it easier to spot bites when legering and to
shield the bite indicator from the wind.
See 'Body-down pole float'.
The specific temperatures at
which a given species functions most efficiently
An olive-green, powerful bottom-feeding fish
found mainly in still waters, tench grow to 4.5kg (10lb) or more,
although a 2.3kg (5lb) fish is a specimen.
Said of the location of the mouth
when it opens at the end of the head, as in trout.
The equipment at the end of the
fishing line, including hooks, lures, weights, and leaders
The area that an animal defends, usually during
breeding season, against intruders of its own species.
The amount of pull, in kilograms or pounds and
ounces, you have to exert on a rod to bend the tip until it is at
right angles to the butt.
A Texas rigged plastic bait that has the point
of the hook going through the plastic, thus esposing the point of
the hook. This is a good rig to use in relatively brush or weed free
A method developed for catching small carp with
a rig comprising a short hooklength attached to a frame swimfeeder
by a short length of powerful pole elastic. The hookbait is often
buried in a ball of groundbait moulded around the feeder.
The process whereby a
lake divides into layers of water with different temperature ranges
A horizontal band of temperature change in a
stratified body of water between the epilimnion and hypolimnion
Said of the pelvic fins when
attached immediately below the pectorals and connected internally
with the pectoral girdle.
A rod that bends progressively
through its length from the tip to the handle.
A stick with a scoop at one end,
for one-handed loosefeeding. Large versions are good for flicking
out baits such as boilies, smaller ones for baits such as maggots.
Very large versions are also available for feeding balls of
A rod that bends only through the
tip and middle sections.
The fine end of a leader where a fly is tied;
it is classified by size
A type of line-holding device used in ice
fishing that indicates a strike
Lures that float and are designed
to be retrieved on the surface
Top and bottom
Any float, but usually a stick,
balsa or Avon, attached to the line with float rubbers at the top
See 'Crowquill Avon'.
Feeling for bites on the line
above the reel with your fingertips while legering.
A hooklength which may be made of wire, braided
nylon or monofilament nylon.
The place where one structure or
water type ends and another begins; e.g., rock bottom turning into
Three hooks with their shanks welded together
and connected to the line or a wire trace by a single eye. Trebles
are mainly used when fishing with deadbaits, livebaits or artificial
lures for pike and zander.
A moulded plastic device that
clips on to treble hooks to guard their points when not in use.
The sight, sound, smell, taste, texture, or
vibration of a lure which entices a fish to strike
A method of angling whereby lures or baits are
presented by a moving boat.
Fishing a bait below a float, especially a
top-and-bottom float, by letting it run down a river with the
Soaked to soften them, trout pellets can be a
good bait for many fish, but especially carp and tench. They can be
used as floaters, loosefed, ground up and added to groundbait, or
made into a paste.
Said of the margin of the caudal
fin when it is squared off as in some catfish.
Trunk myomeres of
The number of body segments
between the last gill opening and the cloacal slit.
Tucked half blood
A blood knot with the tag end
tucked back through the final loop so that it points back up the
line. It may be less prone to slipping than a standard half blood
Fall chinook stock native to the Columbia River
A dense, mouldable substance
mainly used by carp anglers on hooklengths to anchor critically
balanced baits and floaters in the right position.
Suspended particles in water
A yellow powdered spice used by many river
match anglers to degrease, colour and flavour large maggots.
A brief period when lakes or
reservoirs are in the process of mixing water layers of different
A barely detectable bite given by large carp
when they pick up the bait but do not move off with it.
A wheel that you can fit into some
electronic bite alarms that increases the sensitivity of the alarm
to twitcher bites.
Inducing a fish to bite by twitching the bait
with a slight turn of the reel handle or a small movement of the rod
The relationship between
species in a body of water where the warmer-water species inhabit
the upper layer and the cooler-water species inhabit the deeper,
colder portion Type N coho
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the
mouth of the Columbia River and northward to the northern Washington
Type S cohoНаверх
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the
mouth of the Columbia River and southerly to northern California.
move in waves. Referring to the movement of a female fish's tail in
a waving motion used to move gravel for the construction of a redd.
A thick, soft, often inflatable, plastic mat,
to lay large fish on when unhooking them, so protecting them from
A wire trace which sits in a rig above the bait
trace. It prevents a pike biting through the main line when it takes
the bait in a float paternoster rig.
Upriver Bright stock
A stock of fall chinook destined
for the Columbia River and several tributaries upstream from The
Dalles Dam. These fish enter the Columbia from early August with the
peak of the run at Bonneville Dam in early September.
The movement of nutrient rich waters from the
bottom of the ocean to the surface.
The number or weight of all fish in a stock
that lie within the range of sizes customarily considered usable (or
designated so by law). Also called; *standing crop.
The part, by number,
of the fish alive at a given time, which will be caught in future.
A plug with a metal vane at the front, which
can be adjusted to work the plug at different depths.
A popular bait and groundbait flavouring in
powder or liquid form, especially attractive to bream.
See pelvic fins.
Irregular lines or impressions like worm
analysis (or cohort analysis)
analysis of the catches from a given year class over its life in the
fishery. If 10 fish from the 1968 year class were caught each year
for 10 successive years from 1970 to 1979 (age 2 to age 11), then
100 fish would have been caught from the 1968 year class during its
life in the fishery. Since 10 fish were caught during 1979, then 10
fish must have been alive at the beginning of that year. At the
beginning of 1978, there must have been at least 20 fish alive
because 10 were caught in 1978 and 10 more were caught in 1979. By
working backward year by year, one can be virtually certain that at
least 100 fish were alive at the beginning of 1970. A virtual
population analysis goes a step further and calculates the number of
fish that must have been alive if some fish also died from causes
other than fishing.
The most anterior bone of the roof of the
mouth; may bear teeth.
A V-shaped rod rest is a rigid,
notched, V-shaped rod rest that lightly supports the front of your
rod when legering, without trapping the line.
A float attached to the line at the bottom-end
only, usually with locking shot, and which can be used in all types
of water with small baits such as maggots and casters.
A float rod with a hollow tip section and a
more through-action than a spliced-tip stick float rod, to absorb
the shock of the vigorous strikes often needed when waggler-fishing
to pick up the line and set the hook.
Sinkers designed to move across
the bottom, avoiding snags
"Walking the dog" is a term given to
a type of retrieve used with certain types of topwater baits. To
perform this type of retrieve you hold your rod tip down and give it
a little twitch, this causes your bait to turn one direction. Reel
up the slack just a little then you then give it another twitch and
this causes your bait to turn to the opposite direction. You
continue this type of motion until you get your bait coming to you
in a zig-zag pattern. Not all topwater lures can be retrieved this
way. The most famous and popular lure for this is the Zara Spook.
A method of casting a float or leger with a
centrepin reel by giving the line a sharp tug as you cast to set the
drum of the reel spinning, and casting so the rig flies out at the
same speed as line is peeling off the drum. It takes a bit of
A short (1.8-3m/6-10ft), sensitive quivertip
rod designed for very light, close-range legering with fine tackle.
A broad classification on
non-salmonid fish that generally have at least one spiny ray, have
pelvic and pectoral fins located behind the gills, and are usually
suited for water that consistently exceeds 70 degrees F.
Used to make line sink,
washing-up liquid can be applied direct to the line on the reel or
to a sponge on a rod rest.
A deadly bait for chub, especially when used
with groundbait containing a wasp's nest mashed up in boiling water.
A knot for joining two pieces of line.
Wave action disturbs water surface, deters
light penetration, and causes a shift in water temperature, current,
and forage distribution
"Listed in the Integrated System Plan's list of
stocks of high or highest concern; listed in the American Fisheries
Society report as at high or moderate risk of extinction; or stocks
the National Marine Fisheries Service has listed. ""Weak stock"" is
an evolving concept; the Council does not purport to establish a
fixed definition. Nor does the Council imply that any particular
change in management is required because of this definition."
Devices of wire, plastic, rubber, or nylon
attached to hooks which prevent their points from becoming snagged
The outside or inside edge of weedbeds
A device comprising the heads of two rakes
welded together and fixed to the end of a rope, for clearing water
A small, curved blade that can be screwed into
the end of a landing net handle or long bank stick to cut marginal
Artificial lures designed so that
their hooks don't get snagged up when used in weedy water.
A net designed to hold large fish such as carp
and pike safely while you weigh it.
Usually a barrier constructed to
catch upstream migrating adult fish.
A hard-fighting, nocturnal, large-mouthed,
whiskered, bottom-feeding fish introduced to Britain and found in a
few still waters, wels catfish grow to 23kg (50lb) or more.
Flies designed to sink below surface
Soaked and boiled grains of wheat are a
traditional roach bait, but can also be good for tench and carp.
They can be flavoured and dyed.
A short 1.5-6m (5-20ft), telescopic or partly
telescopic pole with a soft flick-tip, designed for catching small
fish to hand.
White breadcrumbs are commonly used in place of
brown crumb to make a slightly heavier groundbait mix.
Nymph stage of the giant mayfly
Also known as wildies, wild carp are descended
from carp bred by monks in monastery ponds in the Middle Ages, and
are now found in only a few still waters. They are similar in
appearance to common carp, but with slimmer bodies, and grow to 7kg
Using metal line to present lures when trolling
Fish that have maintained
successful natural reproduction with little or no supplementation
A stock that is sustained by natural spawning
and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage
Wire-stemmed pole floats are more
stable than ones with cane or carbon stems and are designed for
fishing on the bottom rather than on the drop.
A stick float with a wire stem has
greater stability in windy conditions and turbulent flow than a
cane-stemmed stick float. The heavy stem also allows the hookbait to
be held back hard.
Wire-tipped pole floats are
designed for fishing on the bottom on still waters and canals with
small baits for small fish, and register the slightest of bites.
There are broadly three
thicknesses of wire. Fine wire hooks are ideal for presenting small
baits such as pinkies and bloodworm as they damage the bait less.
They are also light and don't affect bait presentation too much.
They tend to straigthen out when under pressure from a big, fighting
fish, however. Forged hooks are thick wire and very strong, but they
are heavy and tend to spoil perfect bait presentation. They are
ideal for catching big, hungry fish. Medium-wire hooks are somewhere
between the two other types and make ideal general coarse hooks.
A wire trace between the hook and main line is
essential when fishing for pike, catfish and big eels, to prevent
the fish biting through the line.
A deadbait mounted on a set of
trebles so that there is a bend in the body of the fish, and slowly
retrieved so that it wobbles through the water, resembling a fish in
Specialized combinations of hooks, weights, and
plastic or natural worms
An aerated container such as a plastic dustbin,
stocked with redworms or brandlings, which are kept fed and
encouraged to breed with regular helpings of horse manure, grass
cuttings, vegetable peelings, used teabags and the like.
All of the fish/offspring of a given fish
species in a given year
A one year old fish.
The expected lifetime yield-per-fish of a
specific age (e.g., per age 2 individual). For a given exploitation
pattern, rate of growth, and natural mortality, an expected
equilibrium value of Y/R can be calculated for each level of F.
The food part of an egg.
A streamlined predatory fish, like a cross
between a pike and a perch in appearance, but actually a separate
species. Zander were introduced to Britain from Europe in several
separate waves between 1880 and 1950. They are found mainly in the
east of England.
Small aquatic animals that are suspended or
swimming in water.